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UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
FORM 10-K
(Mark One)
  ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
  
  For the fiscal year endedDecember 31, 2020  
  or  
  TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE
SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
  
For the transition period from          to         
Commission file number: 1-35229
Xylem Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
Indiana 45-2080495
(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or
organization)
 (I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)
1 International Drive, Rye Brook, NY 10573
(Address of principal executive offices and zip code)
(914) 323-5700
(Registrant's telephone number, including area code)
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:
Title of each classTrading Symbol(s)Name of each exchange on which registered
Common Stock, par value $0.01 per shareXYLNew York Stock Exchange
2.250% Senior Notes due 2023XYL23New York Stock Exchange
Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act: None
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act.    Yes  þ  No  ¨
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act.      Yes  ¨  No  þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.  Yes  þ  No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files).  Yes  þ  No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting company, or an emerging growth company. See definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company,” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large Accelerated Filer          Accelerated Filer          Non-Accelerated Filer          Smaller reporting company   Emerging growth company
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act.
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has filed a report on and attestation to its management’s assessment of the effectiveness of its internal control over financial reporting under Section 404(b) of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (15 U.S.C. 7262(b)) by the registered public accounting firm that prepared or issued its audit report. Yes  No  ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Act).  Yes    No  
The aggregate market value of the common stock of the registrant held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of June 30, 2020 was approximately $11.6 billion. As of February 19, 2021, there were 180,358,493 outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock, par value $0.01 per share.
DOCUMENTS INCORPORATED BY REFERENCE
Portions of the registrant’s definitive proxy statement for its 2021 Annual Meeting of Shareowners, to be held in May 2021, are incorporated by reference into Part II and Part III of this Report.



Xylem Inc.
ANNUAL REPORT ON FORM 10-K
For the fiscal year ended December 31, 2020
Table of Contents
 
ITEMPAGE
PART I
1
1A.
1B.
2
3
4
*
PART II
5
6
7
7A.
8
9
9A.
9B.
PART III
10
11
12
13
14
PART IV
15
16
 
*Included pursuant to the Instruction to Item 401(b) of Regulation S-K.
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PART I
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with the consolidated financial statements, including the notes, included elsewhere in this Annual Report on Form 10-K (this "Report").
Forward-Looking Statements
This Report contains “forward-looking statements" within the meaning of Section 27A of the Securities Act of 1933, as amended, and Section 21E of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Generally, the words “anticipate,” “estimate,” “expect,” “project,” “intend,” “plan,” "contemplate," "predict," “project,” “forecast,” “likely,” “believe,” “target,” “will,” “could,” “would,” “should,” "potential," "may" and similar expressions or their negative, may, but are not necessary to, identify forward-looking statements. By their nature, forward-looking statements address uncertain matters and include any statements that: are not historical, such as statements about our strategy, financial plans, outlook, objectives, plans, intentions or goals; or address possible or future results of operations or financial performance, including statements relating to orders, revenues, operating margins and earnings per share growth.

Although we believe that the expectations reflected in any of our forward-looking statements are reasonable, actual results could differ materially from those projected or assumed in any of our forward-looking statements. Our future financial condition and results of operations, as well as any forward-looking statements, are subject to change and to inherent risks and uncertainties, many of which are beyond our control. Additionally, many of these risks and uncertainties are, and may continue to be, amplified by the coronavirus (“COVID-19”) pandemic. Important factors that could cause our actual results, performance and achievements, or industry results to differ materially from estimates or projections contained in or implied by our forward-looking statements include, among others, the following: overall industry and economic conditions, including industrial, governmental and private sector spending and the strength of the residential and commercial real estate markets; geopolitical, regulatory, economic and other risks associated with international operations; continued uncertainty around the COVID-19 pandemic’s magnitude, duration and impacts on our business, operations, growth, and financial condition, as well as uncertainty around approved vaccines and the pace of recovery when the pandemic subsides; actual or potential other epidemics, pandemics or global health crises; manufacturing and operating cost increases due to inflation, prevailing price changes, tariffs and other factors; fluctuations in foreign currency exchange rates; disruption, competition and pricing pressures in the markets we serve; cybersecurity incidents or other disruptions of information technology systems on which we rely, or involving our products; disruptions in operations at our facilities or that of third parties upon which we rely; availability of products, parts and raw materials from our supply chain; availability, regulation and interference with radio spectrum used by some of our products; our ability to retain and attract senior management and other key talent; uncertainty related to restructuring and realignment actions and related charges and savings; our ability to continue strategic investments for growth; our ability to successfully identify, execute and integrate acquisitions; difficulty predicting our financial results, including uncertainties due to the nature of our short- and long-cycle businesses; volatility in our results due to weather conditions; risks relating to products, including defects, security, warranty and liability claims, and recalls; our ability to borrow or refinance our existing indebtedness and the availability of liquidity sufficient to meet our needs; risk of future impairments to goodwill and other intangible assets; failure to comply with laws or regulations, including those pertaining to anti-corruption, data privacy and security, export and import, competition, and the environment; changes in our effective tax rates or tax expenses; legal, governmental or regulatory claims, investigations or proceedings and associated contingent liabilities; and other factors set forth in “Part I Item 1A. Risk Factors” in this Report and in subsequent filings we make with the Securities and Exchange Commission (“SEC”).

All forward-looking statements made herein are based on information currently available to us as of the date of this Report. We undertake no obligation to publicly update or revise any forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise, except as required by law.


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ITEM 1.        BUSINESS
Business Overview
Xylem is a leading global water technology company with 2020 revenues of $4.9 billion and approximately 16,700 employees worldwide, of which approximately 1,100 were temporary or fixed-term employees or interns. We design, manufacture and service highly engineered products and solutions across a wide variety of critical applications primarily in the water sector, but also in energy. Our broad portfolio of products, services and solutions addresses customer needs across the water cycle, from the delivery, measurement and use of drinking water, to the collection, testing, analysis and treatment of wastewater, to the return of water to the environment.
We have differentiated market positions in core application areas including transport, treatment, dewatering, test, smart metering, infrastructure assessment services, digital solutions, commercial and residential building services and industrial processes. Setting us apart is a unique set of global assets that include:

Market-leading brands, some of which have been in use for more than 100 years
Global distribution networks consisting of direct sales forces and independent channel partners serving a diverse customer base in approximately 150 countries
A substantial global installed base that provides for steady recurring revenue
A strong history of bringing innovative products, solutions, and business models to customers
A strong financial position and cash generation profile that enables us to fund strategic organic and inorganic growth initiatives, and consistently return capital to shareholders
A demonstrated commitment to corporate governance, social and environmental sustainability and delivering a positive impact to our customers, communities and employees
A dedicated, qualified and technologically advanced group of experienced employees focused on safely satisfying our customers' requirements in the water and energy spaces

Our vision is to create a world in which water issues are no longer a constraint to health, prosperity and sustainable development.
Our Industry
Our planet faces serious water challenges. Less than 1% of the total water available on earth is fresh water, and these supplies are under threat due to factors such as the draining of aquifers, increased pollution and the effects of climate change. Demand for fresh water is rising rapidly due to population growth, industrial expansion, and increased agricultural development, with consumption estimated to double every 20 years. By 2025, more than 30% of the world’s population is expected to live in areas without adequate water supply. Even in developed countries with sufficient clean water supply, existing water supply infrastructure is aging and often inefficient. In the U.S., deteriorating pipe systems, theft or inaccurate meters result in approximately one out of every six gallons of treated water being lost prior to reaching the end customer. This problem of "non-revenue" water is a major financial challenge of many utilities globally, especially in developing markets where non-revenue water can represent 10% to 60% or more of net water produced. These and other challenges create opportunities for growth in the global water industry. We estimate the total addressable market size, excluding operational expenditures related to labor, energy, and chemicals, to be approximately $600 billion.

Global water needs cannot be met without streamlining the water industry’s cost structure with technologies that fundamentally change the provision and management of water. We compete in areas that are pivotal to improving "water affordability" and "resilience", while reducing the impact of "water scarcity". "Water affordability" refers to the more efficient delivery, use and treatment of clean water and wastewater. "Resilience" refers to the management of water-related risks, including climate change mitigation, and the resilience of water infrastructure. "Water scarcity" refers to the management of limited supplies of water due to climate change, overpopulation and pollution. Our customers often face all three of these challenges, ranging from inefficient and aging water distribution networks and energy-intensive or unreliable water and wastewater management systems (which require improvements in water affordability); droughts and pollution which limit the amount of water readily available (causing water scarcity); or exposure to natural disasters such as floods or droughts (which require improvements in resilience). Additionally, we also provide solutions to enhance communications and efficiency, improve safety and conserve resources to customers in the water and energy sectors. Delivering value in these areas creates significant opportunity for the Company. We estimate our total served market size to be approximately $60 billion.

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The Global Water Industry Value Chain
The water industry value chain includes Equipment, Technology and Services companies, like Xylem, that address the unique challenges and demands of a diverse customer base. This customer base includes water and wastewater utilities that supply, treat and monitor clean water or transport, treat and analyze wastewater or storm water through an infrastructure network, and engineering, procurement and construction ("EPC") firms and third party contractors, that work with utilities to design and build water and wastewater infrastructure networks, as depicted below. Utilities and other customers require products, solutions, services, technology and application expertise from their Equipment, Technology and Services providers to address trends such as rising pollution, stricter regulations, increasing operational costs and the increased outsourcing of process knowledge. In addition to utilities, Equipment, Technology and Service companies also provide distinct technologies and application expertise to a wide array of entities, including farms, mines, power plants, industrial facilities (such as food and beverage and pharmaceutical manufacturers) and residential and commercial customers seeking to address similar trends.
Water Industry Supply Chain
https://cdn.kscope.io/653b244462b5be5a46243c649b1c91f7-xyl-20201231_g1.jpg

Business Strategy
Our strategy is to help customers solve the world's greatest water challenges with innovative products, services and solutions to deliver sustainable economic, social and environmental benefits. The following strategic pillars guide where and how we focus our efforts and resources to implement this strategy:
Drive Customer Success. We seek to partner with customers to meet their stakeholders’ needs through our broad portfolio of unmatched products, services and solutions. We are focused on several key areas, beginning with making it easier for customers to do business with Xylem and access the full range of our capabilities. As part of this, we implement a digital platform to discover, select, get price quotes, and purchase our offerings. Second, we seek to lead the way as digital technologies transform our sector by further integrating our digital solution portfolio and broadening our solution sales, digital literacy and marketing capabilities company-wide. Third, we seek to help customers get the most out of their systems by providing world-class services that ensure uptime, efficiency and resilience. We partner with them by providing powerful, integrated lifecycle services and solutions.
Grow in the Emerging Markets. We continue to invest in localizing our capabilities in the emerging markets. We will continue building innovation, product management and engineering teams in these regions, expanding our market coverage in key growth markets such as China, India and Africa. We seek to address the base of the pyramid population by serving water and sanitation needs with new solutions and business models.
Strengthen Innovation and Technology. We seek to create new customer offerings that help them solve water challenges more powerfully than ever before, while also providing our company with rapid growth
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opportunities. We will focus on building and enabling infrastructure for digital growth by making our hardware, networks and software applications interoperable and creating a common software experience. This will further strengthen our core product offerings, and deliver strategic, sustainable innovations that help us tap into new markets through advanced technology and new business models.
Build a Culture of Continuous Improvement. We seek to continue embedding a continuous improvement mindset throughout the company, and will continue to improve our efficiency, simplify our business and manage costs to support continued growth. We are committed to eliminating business complexity by streamlining internal bureaucracy and expanding standard business platforms and processes to help people do their jobs. This will result in freeing up time to ensure that we focus on work that creates customer value. Other focus areas include removing unnecessary costs from our end-to-end value chain to free up resources for growth; and building resilience and sustainability into our supply chain to protect our ability to serve customers.
Cultivate Leadership and Talent Development. We continue to foster an empowering, mission-driven, diverse and inclusive culture. We will continue to build leadership succession depth and breadth in keeping with our commitment to developing the next generation of leaders. We will also align our incentives, including share-based compensation, and organizational structure to our strategy, favoring approaches to drive 'one company' skills, behaviors and stakeholder value creation.
Our strategic plan firmly embeds sustainability at the heart of our competitive advantage and unique business model, and aligns each of our five core strategic pillars to the overarching goal of integrating sustainability into everything we do.
While our strategy will evolve in response to the changing world, our four values are the enduring principles that go to the heart of who we are and guide how we conduct ourselves each day: Respect, Responsibility, Integrity and Creativity.

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Business Segments, Distribution and Competitive Landscape
We have three reportable business segments that are aligned around the critical market applications they provide: Water Infrastructure, Applied Water, and Measurement & Control Solutions. See Note 22, “Segment and Geographic Data,” in our consolidated financial statements for financial information about segments and geographic areas.
The table and descriptions below provide an overview of our business segments:
Market
Applications
2020 Revenue
(in millions)
%
Revenue
Major ProductsPrimary Brands
Water
Infrastructure
Transport$1,679 81 %
 
•   Water and wastewater pumps
•   Filtration, disinfection and biological treatment equipment
• Mobile dewatering equipment

 
•   Flygt
•   Godwin
•   Leopold
•   Sanitaire
•   Wedeco


Treatment400 19 %
  
$2,079 100 %
  
Applied
Water
Building Services (a)$804 56 %
 
•   Pumps
•   Valves
•   Heat exchangers
•   Controls
•   Dispensing
equipment systems
  •   A-C Fire Pump
•   Bell & Gossett
•   Flojet
•   Goulds Water Technology
• Jabsco
•   Lowara
•   Standard
     Xchange
Industrial Water630 44 %
  
$1,434 100 %
  
Measurement & Control SolutionsWater$689 51 %
•   Smart meters
•   Networked communication devices
•  Data analytics
•   Test equipment
•   Controls
•   Sensor devices
•   Software & managed services
• Critical infrastructure services


• BLU-X
• Pure
•   Sensus
•  Smith Blair
•   WTW
•   YSI




Energy276 20 %
Test306 22 %
Software as a Service92 %
$1,363 100 %
  
(a)Building Services application revenue is composed of approximately 70% of Commercial end market sales and approximately 30% of Residential end market sales.

Water Infrastructure
Our Water Infrastructure segment primarily supports the process that collects water from a source, treats it and distributes it to users, and then treats and returns the wastewater responsibly to the environment through two closely linked applications: Transport and Treatment. The Transport application also includes sales and rental of specialty dewatering pumps and related equipment and services, which provide the safe removal or draining of groundwater and surface water from construction sites or other industrial sites and bypass pumping for the repair of aging utility infrastructure, as well as emergency water transport and removal during severe weather events.
The customer base consists of two primary end markets: utility and industrial. The utility market includes public, private and public-private entities that support water, wastewater and storm water networks. The industrial market includes customers who require similar water and wastewater infrastructure networks to support various industrial operations.
Water Infrastructure sells primarily through direct channels with remaining sales through indirect channels and service capabilities. Both utility and industrial facility customers increasingly require our teams’ global but locally
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proficient expertise to use our equipment in their specific applications. Several trends are increasing demand for this application expertise: (i) the increase in both the type and amount of contaminants found in the water supply, (ii) increasing environmental regulations, (iii) the need to increase system efficiencies and resilience to optimize energy and other operational costs, (iv) the retirement of an aging water industry workforce that has not been systematically renewed at utilities and other end-user customers, and (v) the build-out of water infrastructure in the emerging markets. We estimate our served market size in this sector to be approximately $20 billion.
Given the highly fragmented nature of the water industry, the Water Infrastructure segment competes with a large number of businesses and no one business competes across all the markets Water Infrastructure serves. We differentiate ourselves in the market by focusing on product and service performance, quality and reliability, innovation, speed to market with new or disruptive technologies and business models, application expertise, brand reputation, energy efficiency, product security, product life-cycle cost, timeliness of delivery, proximity of service centers, effectiveness of our distribution channels, price and customers' experience in doing business with us. Increasingly digital solutions and analytics are important competitive differentiators. We are actively expanding our capabilities in these areas and integrating them together with our legacy technologies and service offerings as well as capabilities from other Xylem business units to present ever more compelling solutions to our customers. In the sale or rental of products and provision of services, we benefit from our large installed base, which requires maintenance, repair and replacement parts due to the critical application and nature of the products and the conditions under which they operate. Timeliness of delivery, quality and the proximity of service centers are important customer considerations when selecting a provider for after-market products and services as well as equipment rentals. In geographic regions where we are locally positioned to provide a quick response, customers have historically relied on us, rather than our competitors, for after-market products relating to our highly engineered and customized solutions. Our key competitors in the Water Infrastructure segment include KSB Inc., Sulzer Ltd., Evoqua Water Technologies, United Rentals, Trojan (Danaher Corporation) and Grundfos, among others.
Applied Water
Applied Water encompasses the uses of water in two primary applications: Building Services and Industrial Water. These applications serve a diverse set of customers in the commercial, residential and industrial end markets. Residential consumers represent the end users in the residential market, while owners and managers of properties such as apartment buildings, retail stores, institutional buildings, restaurants, schools, hospitals and hotels are examples of end users in the commercial market. The industrial market includes OEMs, exploration and production firms, and developers and managers of industrial facilities, such as electrical power generators, chemical manufacturers, machine shops, clothing manufacturers, marine, food and beverage companies and car washes.
In the Applied Water segment, end markets vary widely and, as a result, specialized distribution partners are often preferred. As such, the Applied Water segment provides the majority of its sales through strong indirect channels with the remaining sales going through our global direct sales channels. We have long-standing relationships with many of the leading independent distributors in the markets we serve and we provide incentives to distributors, such as specialized loyalty and training programs.
We estimate our served market size in this sector to be approximately $20 billion. Population growth, urbanization and regulatory requirements are macro growth drivers of these markets, driving the need for housing, food, community services and retail goods within growing city centers.

Competition in the Applied Water segment focuses on brand reputation, application expertise, product delivery, performance and energy efficiency, quality and reliability, and price. We compete by offering a wide variety of innovative and high-quality products, coupled with world-class application expertise. We believe our distribution through well-established channels and our reputation for quality significantly enhance our market position. Our ability to deliver innovative product offerings has enabled us to compete effectively, to cultivate and maintain customer relationships and to serve and expand into many niche and new markets. Our key competitors in the Applied Water segment include Grundfos, Wilo SE, Pentair plc and Franklin Electric Co., Inc.

Measurement & Control Solutions
Measurement & Control Solutions develops advanced technology solutions that enable intelligent use and conservation of critical water and energy resources. The segment delivers communications, smart metering, measurement and control technologies and critical infrastructure technologies that allow customers to more effectively use their distribution networks for the delivery, monitoring and control of critical resources such as water, electricity and natural gas. We also provide analytical instrumentation used to measure and analyze water quality, flow and level in clean water, wastewater, surface water and coastal environments. Additionally, we offer
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software and services including cloud-based analytics, remote monitoring and data management, leak detection, condition assessment, asset management and pressure monitoring solutions.
At the heart of our leading technologies are automation, data management and decision support. Communications networks enable customers to automate and optimize meter reading, bill customers, monitor flow rates and detect and enable rapid response to changing and unsafe conditions. In short, they provide insight into operations and enable our customers to manage the entire scope of their operations remotely through their networks. At the center of our offering is the FlexNet communication network, which provides a common communications platform and infrastructure for essential metering services. This two-way communication technology remotely connects a wide variety of smart points in a given network with protocols, frequently on Federal Communications Commission ("FCC") licensed spectrum in the U.S., to enable reliable, resilient and secure transmissions. These technologies allow our customers to remotely and continuously monitor their water, energy distribution infrastructure, prioritize and manage maintenance, and use data to optimize many aspects of their networks. Our Advanced Infrastructure Analytics platform complements these offerings with intelligent solutions that help utility decision-makers manage and maintain their networks more effectively in real time.
The majority of our sales in the U.S. are conducted through strong, long-standing relationships with leading distributors and dedicated channel partners for the water and energy markets. Internationally, direct sales are often made in markets without established distribution channels; however, some distribution channels are used in more developed markets. A more direct sales approach, with key account management, is employed for large utilities and government programs.
We estimate our served market size in this sector to be approximately $20 billion. Macro growth drivers include increasing regulation, aging infrastructure and worldwide movement towards smart grid implementation. Water scarcity and conservation, as well as the need to prevent revenue loss (via inaccurate meter readings, leaks or theft) are among the drivers of smart meter and leak detection technologies.
Our Sensus-branded meters are well positioned in the smart metering sector, the fastest growing sector of the global meter industry. We set ourselves apart in the industry by focusing on our communication network, innovation, new product development and service offerings that deliver tangible savings of non-revenue water through improved meter accuracy, reduced theft and identification of leaks. Our Pure Technologies equipment and services are also well positioned in the leak detection sector, which is attracting considerable attention as aging infrastructure and increased regulatory scrutiny exert pressure on operating budgets. Our key competitors in the Measurement & Control Solutions segment include Itron, Badger Meter, Landis+Gyr, Neptune (Roper), Elster (Honeywell), Echologics (Mueller Water Products), Hach (Danaher Corporation) and Teledyne.
Geographic Profile
The table below illustrates the annual revenue and percentage of revenue by geographic area for each of the three years ended December 31.
Revenue
(in millions)202020192018
$ Amount% of Total$ Amount% of Total$ Amount% of Total
United States$2,297 47 %$2,554 49 %$2,424 47 %
Europe1,407 29 %1,380 26 %1,449 28 %
Asia Pacific618 13 %659 13 %660 13 %
Other554 11 %656 12 %674 12 %
Total$4,876 $5,249 $5,207 
In addition to the traditional markets of the U.S. and western Europe, opportunities in emerging markets within Asia Pacific, eastern Europe, Latin America and other countries are growing. Revenue derived from emerging markets comprised approximately 19% of total revenue in 2020 and 20% of total revenue in both 2019 and 2018.
Supply and Seasonality
We have a global manufacturing and assembly footprint, with production facilities in Europe, North America, Latin America, Asia and the Middle East. Our inventory management and distribution practices seek to minimize inventory holding periods by striving to take delivery of the inventory and manufacturing as close as possible to the sale or distribution of products to our customers. All of our businesses require various parts and raw materials, the availability and prices of which may fluctuate. Parts and raw materials commonly used in our products include motors, fabricated parts, castings, bearings, seals, batteries, printed circuit boards ("PCBs") and electronic
9


components, as well as commodities, including steel, brass, nickel, copper, aluminum and plastics. While we may recover some cost increases through operational improvements, we are still exposed to pricing risk, including due to duty and tariff assessments by the U.S. or other governments on foreign imports. We attempt to control costs through fixed-priced contracts with suppliers and various other programs, such as our global procurement initiative.
Our business relies on third-party suppliers, contract manufacturing and commodity markets to secure raw materials, parts and components used in our products. We typically acquire materials and components through a combination of blanket and scheduled purchase orders to support our materials requirements. For many of our products we have existing alternate sources of supply, or such sources may be readily available.
We may experience price volatility or supply constraints for materials that are not available from multiple sources. From time to time, we acquire certain inventory in anticipation of supply constraints or enter into longer-term pricing commitments with suppliers to improve the priority, price and availability of supply. There have been no raw material shortages in the past several years that have had a significant adverse impact on our business as a whole.
Our business segments experience a modest level of seasonality in their operations. This seasonality is dependent on factors such as customers' capital spending as well as the effects of climate change and weather conditions, including heavy flooding, prolonged droughts and fluctuations in temperatures or weather patterns, all of which can positively or negatively impact portions of our business.
Customers
Our business is not dependent on any single customer or a few customers, the loss of which would have a material adverse effect on our Company. No individual customer accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated revenues in 2020, 2019 or 2018.
Backlog
Backlog includes orders on hand as well as contractual customer agreements at the end of the period. Delivery schedules vary from customer to customer based on their requirements. Annual or multi-year contracts are subject to rescheduling and cancellation by customers due to the long-term nature of the contracts. As such, beginning total backlog, plus orders, minus revenues, will not equal ending total backlog due to contract adjustments, foreign currency fluctuations and other factors. Typically, large projects require longer lead production cycles and deployment schedules and delays can occur from time to time. Total backlog was $2,124 million at December 31, 2020 and $1,801 million at December 31, 2019. We anticipate that approximately 55% of the backlog at December 31, 2020 will be recognized as revenue during 2021.
Research and Development
Research and development (“R&D”) is a key foundation of our growth strategy and we focus on the design and development of products and application know-how that anticipate customer needs and emerging trends. Our engineers are involved in new product development as well as improvement of existing products to increase customer value. Our businesses invest substantial resources into R&D. We anticipate we will continue to develop and invest in our R&D capabilities to promote a steady flow of innovative, high-quality and reliable products and integrated solutions to further strengthen our position in the markets we serve. In addition to investments made in software development, which were capitalized, we incurred $187 million, $191 million, and $189 million as a result of R&D investment spending in 2020, 2019 and 2018, respectively.
We have R&D and product development capabilities around the world. R&D activities are initially conducted in our technology centers, located in conjunction with some of our major manufacturing facilities to enable an efficient and robust development process. We have several global technical centers and local development teams around the world where we are supporting global needs and accelerating the customization of our products and solutions to address local needs. In some cases, our R&D activities are conducted at our piloting and testing facilities and at strategic customer sites. These piloting and testing facilities enable us to serve our strategic markets globally. As part of expanding our bandwidth and to increase our access to technology, we have built innovation eco-system partnerships with academic institutions, start-up accelerators and venture capital organizations.
Capitalized Software
We offer software as a product or service directly to external customers, which is included within "Other intangible assets, net" on our Consolidated Balance Sheets. As of December 31, 2020 and 2019 we had net capitalized software used in sales and services to external customers of $182 million and $165 million, respectively.

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Intellectual Property
We generally seek patent protection for those inventions and improvements that we believe will improve our competitive position and are not suitable to be kept as a trade secret. We believe that our patents and applications are important for maintaining the competitive differentiation of our products and improving our return on R&D investments. While we own, control or license a significant number of patents, trade secrets, proprietary information, trademarks, trade names, copyrights and other intellectual property rights which, in the aggregate, are of material importance to our business, management believes that our business, as a whole, as well as each of our core business segments, is not materially dependent on any one intellectual property right or related group of such rights.
Patents, patent applications and license agreements expire or terminate over time by operation of law, in accordance with their terms or otherwise. As the portfolio of our patents, patent applications and license agreements has evolved over time, we do not expect the expiration of any specific patent to have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations.
Governmental Regulations
Environmental Regulations
Our global operations are subject to various laws and regulations governing the environment and climate change, such as those promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and similar state and foreign environmental agencies, including the discharge of pollutants and the management and disposal of hazardous substances. While environmental and climate change laws and regulations are subject to change, such changes can be difficult to predict reliably and the timing of potential changes is uncertain. Management does not believe, based on current circumstances, that compliance costs pursuant to such regulations will have a material adverse effect on our financial position or results of operations. However, the effect of future legislative or regulatory changes could be material to our financial condition or results of operations.
We continue to be dedicated to environmental and sustainability programs to minimize the use of natural resources, reduce the utilization and generation of hazardous materials from our processes and remediate identified environmental concerns. We are currently engaged in site investigations and remediation activities to address environmental cleanup from past operations at a number of current and former manufacturing facilities. We do not anticipate these liabilities will have a material adverse effect on our consolidated financial position or results of operations. At December 31, 2020, we had estimated and accrued $3 million related to environmental matters.

Other Regulations
As a company with global operations, we are subject to complex U.S. federal, state and local and foreign laws and regulations in the countries where we conduct business, including with respect to trade, such as tariffs, imports and exports; anti-bribery and corruption; antitrust and competition; data security and privacy, such as the EU General Data Protection Regulation (“GDPR”); use of regulated radio spectrum, including that of the U.S. FCC; lobbying activity; health and safety; and the environment, among other matters. We have policies and procedures in place to promote compliance with these laws and regulations. Additional information about the impact of government regulations on Xylem’s business is included in Item 1A. “Risk Factors” under the headings Risks Related to Our Business and Operations and Risks Related to Legal, Regulatory and Tax.
Sustainability
At Xylem, sustainability is at the center of who we are and what we do. As a leading global water technology company, we address some of the world’s most urgent sustainability challenges - responsible stewardship of our shared water resources and resiliency of communities to climate change. Technology is playing an increasingly important role in helping the world solve water issues. We have a long history of innovation and we are focusing on the powerful capabilities of smart technology, integrated management and data analytics.
We believe our financial performance and commitment to sustainability go hand in hand. Xylem approaches business sustainability as a way to generate economic value while also creating value for society, thus meeting the needs of both. Accordingly, in 2019, we evolved our approach to leverage sustainability in our decision-making toward long-term value for our shareholders, customers, employees and communities in which we operate and announced an ambitious new slate of 2025 sustainability goals. These new goals can be found in our 2019 Sustainability Report, which is aligned to the Global Reporting Initiative and the Sustainability Accounting Standards Board frameworks.
In setting our 2025 Sustainability goals, we also aligned them with the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals ("UNSDGs"), not only to substantiate our contribution to achieving global objectives, but also to be
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transparent in our communication to stakeholders by providing details on our responsibility to build a sustainable future. While Xylem embraces all 17 of the UNSDGs, we have a special focus on SDG6: Clean Water and Sanitation.
In 2020, Xylem completed a $1 billion Green Bond offering in senior unsecured notes, consisting of $500 million of 1.950% senior notes due in January 2028 and $500 million of 2.250% senior notes due in January 2031. The proceeds of this offering are funding green projects that help improve water accessibility, water affordability, and water systems resilience.
Human Capital
Our employees around the globe are united in a shared purpose – to solve water – and, as such, are key to the Company’s success and strategy.
As of December 31, 2020, Xylem employed approximately 16,700 employees worldwide, of which approximately 1,100 were temporary or fixed-term employees or interns. We have approximately 5,500 employees in the U.S., of which approximately 17% are represented by labor unions. In certain foreign countries, our employees are represented by work councils. We believe that our facilities are in favorable labor markets with ready access to adequate numbers of workers and believe our relations with our employees are good.
The safety and health of our employees is our highest priority. We have a strong Environmental, Health and Safety program that focuses on governance, risk reduction and education to provide our employees with safe and healthy workplaces. Importantly, during 2020 and in response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we took additional measures to protect the health, safety and well-being of our employees, including a support pay program for employees impacted by the pandemic, an essential services support pay program for employees whose roles were classified as an “essential service” requiring work on-site at a Xylem facility or in the field supporting customers, and the transition of office-based employees to remote work-from-home status where possible, which enabled us to minimize disruptions to our operations and continue to support our customers. In addition, our leadership team held listening sessions with employees who were also caregivers to understand their unique challenges and evolve our support accordingly.
We foster a culture that permits all employees to thrive. This means cultivating a diverse and inclusive workplace that brings together people from different perspectives, talents and experiences. We conduct periodic employee engagement surveys to understand our employees’ perspectives, identify areas for additional focus and establish action plans. We provide periodic training on diversity and inclusion globally, including for our senior leaders. We offer Employee Network Groups, which are voluntary, employee-led groups formed by people with a common affinity, such as gender, race, sexual orientation, military status or other attributes. Each Employee Network Group is sponsored and supported by one or more senior leaders and all groups are open to all employees regardless of any diversity attributes with which they may identify. In addition, our CEO and leadership team hold regular global town hall meetings, as well as smaller regional or local town halls, to share and hear from our employees across all areas of the Company and geographies.
We believe that our success and long-term growth depend, in part, on our continued ability to attract and retain diverse and highly-skilled employees, including senior management and employees with skills in our strategic areas and core competencies, such as engineering, innovation, digital technologies, sales excellence and product and project management. We endeavor to provide our employees with competitive compensation and benefits, including paid parental leave in the U.S. We have a broad range of talent development programs to facilitate the continued professional growth and leadership development of our succession plans. These programs span across all levels, businesses and functions of the organization, including entry-level talent recruitment programs, development programs for emerging leaders, manager training and executive development. We also prioritize employee engagement, including through regular, year round discussions focused on performance and development, through volunteerism, and through activities involving Watermark, our corporate social responsibility program.
Available Information
We are required to file annual, quarterly and current reports, proxy statements and other information with the SEC. Our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K, proxy statements and amendments to those reports are available free of charge on our website www.xylem.com as soon as reasonably practicable after such reports are electronically filed with or furnished to the SEC. The information on our website is not, and shall not be deemed to be, a part hereof or incorporated into this or any of our other filings with the SEC.
In addition, the public may read or copy any materials filed with the SEC, free of charge, at www.sec.gov.
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ITEM 1A.    RISK FACTORS
In evaluating our business and investment in our securities, investors should carefully consider the following discussion of material factors and events, along with all of the other information in this Report and in our other filings with the SEC. The events and consequences discussed below could, in circumstances that we may not be able to accurately predict, recognize or control, have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, cash flows, results of operations or market price of our common stock.
These risk factors do not identify all of the risks we face. Our business is also subject to general risks that affect many other companies. In addition, we operate in a continually changing business, economic and geopolitical environment and as a result new risk factors may emerge from time to time. Risks not currently known to us, or that we currently believe are immaterial, may impact our business operations, financial condition or share price. The global economic and geopolitical climate, including the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, amplifies many of the risks below.
Risks Related to Macroeconomic and Industry Factors
Industry and economic conditions may adversely affect our markets and our customers’ operating conditions, which can in turn affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
With sales in over 150 countries, we compete in a wide range of geographic and product markets. Material economic and industry factors impacting our businesses include the overall strength of, and our customers’ confidence in, local and global macroeconomic conditions; industrial and private sector spending; federal, state, local and municipal governmental fiscal, trade and procurement policies; strength of the residential and commercial real estate markets; the availability of commercial financing for our customers and end-users; and the degree of funding for our public sector customers, including with respect to water infrastructure investments. The downturn in the global economy due to the impacts of COVID-19 has, and continues to have, a material adverse effect on our business and results of operations. Future slowdowns or prolonged downturns in the global economy or our markets could have material adverse effects on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
We are exposed to geopolitical, regulatory, economic, foreign exchange and other risks associated with our global sales and operations.
In 2020, 47% of our total revenue was from customers within the U.S. and 53% was from customers outside the U.S. We expect our sales from international operations and export sales to continue to be a significant portion of our revenue. Many of our manufacturing operations, employees and suppliers are located outside of the U.S. Our operations and sales both within the U.S. and internationally are subject, in varying degrees, to risks inherent in doing business globally, including:
changes in trade protection measures, including embargoes, tariffs and other trade barriers, and import and export regulations and licensing requirements;
instability and uncertainties arising from the global geopolitical environment, including economic nationalism, populism, protectionism and anti-global sentiment;
changes in tax laws and potential negative consequences from the interpretation, application and enforcement by governmental tax authorities of tax laws and policies;
unanticipated changes in other laws and regulations or how such provisions are interpreted or administered;
disruptions in our global supply chain;
unfavorable circumstances arising from host country laws or regulations, including those related to infrastructure and data transmission, security and privacy;
shocks to the global financial system, including due to global health crises, the effects of climate change, or due to idiosyncratic events, such as a terrorist attack;
theft, compromise or misappropriation of technology or intellectual property;
foreign currency exchange rate fluctuations, restrictions on repatriation of earnings or payment of distributions, dividends, loans or advances to us by foreign subsidiaries; 
disruption of operations from labor or political disturbances;
regional safety and security considerations;
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the transition away from benchmark reference rates based on market participant judgments, such as LIBOR and EURIBOR, to rates based on observable transactions, such as the Secured Overnight Financing Rate;
increased costs and risks in developing, staffing and simultaneously managing a number of global operations as a result of distance, remote work arrangements, language and cultural differences; and
threat, outbreak, uncertainty or escalation of political instability, insurrection, armed conflict, terrorism, global health crises or pandemics, or war.
Additionally, we continue to monitor the impacts of the U.K.’s exit from the EU (“Brexit”) on our supply chain, operations and financial results. The U.K. and the EU concluded a Trade and Cooperation Agreement (“TCA”) that has been provisionally applied since January 1, 2021, pending ratification by the EU Parliament. The TCA creates a number of risks and uncertainties for our businesses. It provides for duties on goods traded between the U.K. and EU, including a preferential treatment provision for no duties on goods that meet certain origin criteria. Our businesses may not be able to benefit from the preferential treatment provision given the origin of certain components used in the manufacture of our products and related certification requirements. The TCA does not specify rules for trade in services, and as such our services are subject to the World Trade Organization’s rules until the parties to the TCA resolve this trade issue. There is also uncertainty as to whether the EU Parliament will ratify the TCA, amend or reject it in its entirety. In addition, the new trading relationship between the U.K. and EU has increased, and will continue to increase, our costs, including for transportation and duties on products not otherwise eligible for preferential treatment under the TCA. We have experienced, and may continue to experience, shipping delays given the need for customs inspections and other procedures at the border, including with respect to requirements to mitigate the risks of COVID-19. Volatility in foreign currencies and other markets may also arise as the U.K. and EU work through the TCA or other new trade arrangements. Additionally, once the TCA is formalized, there could be other near-or long-term negative impacts. The U.K. will also need to negotiate its own trade treaties with countries around the world, which could take years to complete, and any disagreements on trade terms could result in supply chain delays or other disruptions. As a result, we face continued uncertainty and risks of disruptions in our supply chain and increased costs.
In the year ended December 31, 2020, 19% of our total revenues were generated in emerging markets and we have placed a particular emphasis on increasing our growth and presence in emerging markets. Beyond the general risks that we face outside the U.S., our operations in emerging markets could involve additional uncertainties, including risks that governments may impose withholding or other taxes on remittances and other payments to us, or the amount of any such taxes may increase; governments may seek to nationalize our assets; or governments may impose or increase investment barriers or other restrictions affecting our business. In addition, emerging markets pose other uncertainties, including the difficulty of enforcing agreements, challenges collecting receivables, protecting our intellectual property and other assets, pressure on the pricing of our products and services, higher business conduct risks, and the ability to hire and retain qualified talent. We cannot predict the impact such events might have on our business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
The COVID-19 pandemic has adversely impacted, and continues to pose risks to, our business, results of operations and financial condition, the nature and extent of which are highly uncertain and unpredictable.
Our global operations expose us to risks associated with public health crises, including epidemics and pandemics. The COVID-19 pandemic has had, and may continue to have, an adverse impact on our employees, customers, supply chain, operations and sales. The global spread of the COVID-19 pandemic has, and continues to, curtail the movement of people, goods and services worldwide, including in many of the regions where we sell our products and services and conduct operations. Government-mandated precautions to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, including travel restrictions, quarantines, stay at home or similar measures in many of the areas in which we operate, resulted in temporary production impacts at several of our facilities in 2020, curtailed, and continues to curtail, the business and operations of some of our customers and suppliers, and also impacted, and continues to impact, our ability to access our customers’ sites. If the COVID-19 pandemic continues or worsens, including mutations of the virus, we may experience a continued decline in sales and customer orders in certain of our businesses. The COVID-19 pandemic also has, and continues to, impact our supply chain with unpredictable disruptions, capacity constraints or delays in shipment of materials necessary to the manufacture of our products. While we have taken reasonable measures to mitigate these impacts, as the pandemic continues, or if it worsens, our manufacturing facilities and supply chain may continue to be significantly impacted. Accordingly, the pandemic has negatively impacted our revenue growth in certain of our businesses. It is uncertain how materially the COVID-19 pandemic, including any mutations of the virus, the corresponding rollout, efficacy or unanticipated consequences of such vaccines, and the pace of recovery will affect our global operations and sales if these impacts persist, worsen or re-emerge throughout 2021 and beyond. The extent and duration of these impacts on us are dependent in part on demand for our products and services, customers’ budgets, spending, willingness to allow
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us access to their job sites and continuation of planned projects, continued funding for infrastructure investments, particularly water infrastructure, our suppliers’ ability to continue to supply us with parts, components and raw materials, and logistics providers' ability to continue shipment of our products and supplies.
The COVID-19 pandemic has caused significant volatility and uncertainty in the financial and capital markets. A further disruption of global financial markets or resulting economic downturn from the COVID-19 pandemic or other global health crises may reduce our ability to incur debt or access capital, or increase our cost of capital. There are no assurances that the credit markets or the capital markets will be available to us in the future or that the lenders participating our credit facilities will be able to provide financing in accordance with their contractual obligations. Additionally, concerns over the economic impacts of COVID-19 have caused, and may continue to cause, volatility in our stock price. A sustained downturn may impact our liquidity position, including our ability to continue to pay dividends, or may impact our asset values resulting in the carrying value of our goodwill or other intangible assets exceeding their fair value, which may require us to recognize an impairment to those assets. The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, including remote working arrangements for employees, has not to date but could in the future impact our financial reporting systems and internal control over financial reporting.
We cannot reasonably estimate the length or severity of the COVID-19 pandemic or the associated economic downturn, impacts on our markets and other impacts to our business, financial position, results of operations and cash flows. To the extent that COVID-19 conditions improve, the duration and sustainability of such improvements will be uncertain, and continuing adverse impacts or the degree of improvement may vary by business and/or geography. Actions we may take in response to improvements in conditions may also vary by business and/or geography, and may be made with incomplete information. There is a risk that such actions could be premature, insufficient or incorrect and could have a material adverse impact on our business and results of operations.
Inflation, tariffs, customs duties and other increases in manufacturing and operating costs could adversely affect our cash flows and results of operations.
Our operating costs are subject to fluctuations, particularly due to changes in prices for commodities, parts, raw materials, energy and related utilities, freight, and cost of labor which may be driven by inflation, prevailing price levels, exchange rates, changes in trade agreements and trade protection measures including tariffs, and other economic factors. Our operating costs have in the past and may continue to be impacted by price inflation, including in 2021 with respect to the cost of certain commodities, freight and logistics. The U.S. has enacted various trade actions, including imposing tariffs on certain goods we import from China and other countries, which has resulted in retaliatory tariffs by China and other countries. Additional tariffs imposed by the U.S., or further retaliatory trade measures taken by China or other countries, could increase the cost of our products that we may not be able to offset. The TCA between the U.K. and EU, which has been provisionally applied since January 1, 2021 pending ratification by the EU Parliament, imposes duties on goods traded between the U.K. and EU. In order to remain competitive, we may not be able to recover all or a portion of these higher costs from our customers through product price increases. Further, in a declining price environment, our operating margins may contract because we account for inventory using the first-in, first-out method. Actions we take to mitigate volatility in manufacturing and operating costs may not be successful and, as a result, our financial condition, cash flows and results of operations could be materially and adversely affected.
Our business is subject to foreign currency exchange rates fluctuations.
Sales outside of the U.S. for the year ended December 31, 2020 accounted for approximately 53% of our net sales. We also have significant operations in various locations outside of the U.S. We are exposed to fluctuations in foreign currency transaction exchange rates, particularly with respect to the Euro, Swedish Krona, Polish Zloty, Canadian Dollar, British Pound and Australian Dollar. Changes in the value of currencies of the countries in which we do business relative to the value of the U.S. Dollar or Euro could affect our ability to sell products competitively and control our cost structure, which could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, we are subject to foreign exchange translation risk due to changes in the value of foreign currencies in relation to our reporting currency, the U.S. Dollar. The translation risk is primarily concentrated in the exchange rate between the U.S. Dollar and the Euro, Chinese Yuan, British Pound, Canadian Dollar, Australian Dollar and Swedish Krona. As the U.S. Dollar fluctuates against other currencies in which we transact business, revenue and income can be impacted. Strengthening of the U.S. Dollar relative to the Euro and the currencies of the other countries in which we do business, could materially and adversely affect our sales growth in future periods. Refer to Item 7A. "Quantitative and Qualitative Disclosures about Market Risk" for additional information on foreign exchange risk.

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Our pension and other defined benefit plans are subject to financial market risks that could adversely impact our earnings and cash flows in future periods.
Certain current and retired employees are covered by pension and other defined benefit plans (collectively, “post-retirement benefit plans”). We make contributions to fund our post-retirement benefit plans when we consider it necessary or advantageous to do so. Significant changes in market interest rates, decreases in fair value of or investment losses on plan assets, changes in discount rates, or changes in minimum funding requirements established by governments, taxing authorities or other agreement, could increase our funding obligations and adversely impact our financial condition and cash flows in future periods. In addition, the cost of our post-retirement benefit plans is incurred over long periods of time and involves factors that can be volatile and unpredictable, including rates of return on plan assets, discount rates used to calculate liabilities and expenses, change in laws and regulatory actions, rates of future compensation increases, and changes in actuarial experience and assumptions, which could adversely impact our results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
Risks Related to our Business and Operations
Failure to compete successfully in our markets, including our ability to develop innovative and disruptive technologies, could adversely affect our business.
We offer our technologies, products and services in highly competitive markets. We believe the principal points of competition are product and service performance, quality and reliability, innovation, speed to market with new or disruptive technologies and business models, application expertise, brand reputation, energy efficiency, product security, product life cycle cost, timeliness of delivery, proximity of our service centers, effectiveness of our distribution channels, price and customers’ experience in doing business with us. Maintaining and improving our competitive position will require successful management of these factors in a business environment with increasingly rapid rates of change and disruption.
Our competitive position and future growth rate depend upon a number of factors, including our ability to successfully: (i) innovate, develop and maintain competitive products, services, business models and customer experience to address emerging trends and meet customers’ needs, (ii) defend our market share against an ever-expanding number of competitors, many of which are new and non-traditional competitors from outside our industry, such as large technology firms, or those out of emerging markets, (iii) enhance our product and service offerings by adding innovative features or disruptive technologies that differentiate them from those of our competitors and prevent commoditization, (iv) develop, manufacture and bring compelling new products and services to market quickly and cost-effectively, (v) continue to cultivate, develop and maintain our distribution network of channel partners, (vi) attract, develop and retain individuals with the requisite innovation and technical expertise and understanding of customers’ needs to develop new technologies, products and services, (vii) continue to invest in manufacturing, research and development, engineering, sales and marketing, customer service and support, and our distribution networks, (viii) win large contracts, and (ix) compete for business subject to applicable governmental procurement laws and policies, including the Buy America and Buy American Act requirements in the U.S., as they may evolve over time.
We may not be successful in maintaining our competitive position, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flows or results of operations. The failure of our technologies, products or services to maintain and gain market acceptance due to more attractive offerings, or customers’ slower-than-expected adoption of and investment in our new and innovative technologies could significantly reduce our revenues or market share and adversely affect our competitive position. Pricing pressures also could cause us to adjust the prices of certain products to stay competitive, or we may not be able to continue to win large contracts, which could adversely affect our market share and competitive position.
Cybersecurity incidents or other disruptions to our information technology infrastructure, communications networks and operations could adversely affect our business, products and services.
Our business operations rely on information technology and communications networks, some of which are operated by third parties, including cloud-based service providers, to process, transmit and store our electronic information, including sensitive data such as confidential business information and personal data relating to employees, customers or other business partners. We have, or operate through, a concentration of operations on certain sites, such as production and shared service centers. With the COVID-19 pandemic impacting our business since March 2020, a significant portion of our workforce transitioned to remote working, which we expect to be the case for the foreseeable future, and they are reliant on our information technology infrastructure and communication networks to perform their jobs, as well as access to reliable and safe communication networks in their communities. We also rely on third parties’ information technology systems to manage or support a variety of business processes and
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activities, including with regard to remote work. Regardless of protection measures, essentially all systems are susceptible to damage, disruption or shut-down due to cybersecurity attacks, including ransomware, denial-of-service, computer viruses and security breaches; equipment or system failure, including due to maintenance, obsolescence or age; and other events or circumstances, such as human error or malfeasance, vandalism, natural disaster, fire, power, communication or other utility outage, shutdown or utility failure and other events. In any such circumstances, our system redundancy and other business continuity and disaster recovery planning and response may be ineffective or inadequate.
In addition, we offer certain services and products, including pumps, controllers and meters that may be digitally-enabled or connect to and are part of the “Internet of Things” (IoT), and are used by third parties for operational purposes or to collect data. Cybersecurity attacks may target hardware, software and information installed, stored or transmitted by our products after they have been purchased and incorporated into third parties’ products, facilities or infrastructure. While we attempt to provide security measures to safeguard our products and services from cyber threats, the potential for an attack remains. A successful attack may result in the misappropriation, destruction, unauthorized access to or disclosure of third parties' confidential information, damage or disruption to third parties’ operations, recall of our products or increased costs for security and remediation, as well as damage to our brand reputation.
Like many multinational companies, we, and some third parties upon which we rely, have experienced cybersecurity attacks on information technology networks and systems, products and services in the past and may experience them in the future, likely with more frequency and involving a broader range of devices and modes of attack. To date, none have resulted in any material adverse impact to our business, operations, products, services or customers. We have adopted measures designed to mitigate potential risks associated with cybersecurity threats, breaches or other disruptions or damage to our information technology networks and systems, products and services but the unpredictability of the timing, nature and scope of such disruptions and threats could impact our business, operations, products and services. Disruption to information technology and communications networks on which we rely, or an attack on our products and services, could interfere with our operations, disrupt our supply chain and service to our customers, interrupt production and shipments, result in theft or compromise of our and our customers’ intellectual property and trade secrets, damage employee, customer and business partner relationships, negatively impact our reputation, result in legal claims and proceedings or regulatory enforcement actions, and increase our costs for security and remediation, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our competitive position, results of operations, cash flows or financial condition.
Although we continue to assess these risks, implement controls and perform business continuity and disaster recovery planning, we cannot be sure that cybersecurity attacks or other interruptions with material adverse effects will not occur.
A material disruption to any of our facilities or operations, or that of third parties upon which we rely, may adversely affect our business.
Our facilities and operations rely on a complex global supply chain including suppliers (and their suppliers), distributors, contract manufacturers and logistics providers. In addition, our business relies on certain third parties to supply critical business processes and activities, including in the areas of Finance, Human Resources, Procurement and Information Technology. We also have or operate through a concentration of operations on certain sites, such as production and shared services centers. If our facilities or the operations of third parties upon which we rely were to be disrupted as a result of an actual or threatened event or circumstance, including a significant equipment or system failure, natural disaster, effects of climate change, power, water or communications outage, fire, explosion, critical supply failure, terrorism, cybersecurity attack, political disruption, outbreak of a pandemic or other public health crisis, insurrection, armed conflict or war, labor dispute, work stoppage or slowdown, technology failure, adverse weather conditions or other reason, it could cause material adverse impacts to our financial performance, operations and business, including an inability to meet customer demand or contractual commitments, increased costs, reduced sales, and impact our business processes and activities, including our ability to timely report financial results. Any interruption in capability may be lengthy and have lasting effects, require a significant amount of management and other employees' time and focus, and require us to make substantial expenditures to remedy the situation, which could negatively affect our operations, business processes and activities, profitability and financial condition. Any recovery under our insurance policies may not offset the lost sales or increased costs that we may experience during a disruption or any resultant longer-term loss of suppliers, sales or customers, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition, cash flow and results of operations. Although we continue to assess these risks, implement controls and perform business continuity and disaster recovery planning, we cannot be sure that interruptions with material adverse effects on our operational and financial performance will not occur.
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Lack of availability of products, parts and raw materials from our supply chain or the inability of suppliers to meet delivery requirements, could adversely affect our business.
Our business relies on suppliers (and their suppliers), including contract manufacturing, commodity markets and logistics providers, to secure and ship select finished goods and raw materials, parts and components that are used in our products. We expect that our reliance on, and the complexity of, the supply chain will continue to increase. Parts and raw materials commonly used in our products include motors, fabricated parts, castings, bearings, seals, batteries, PCBs and electronic components, as well as commodities, including steel, brass, nickel, copper, aluminum and plastics. We are exposed to the availability of these parts, components, materials and finished goods, which have in the past and may in the future be subject to delay, curtailment or change due to, among other things, changes in the strategy or production planning of suppliers including decisions to exit production of key components upon which we rely, interruptions in production by suppliers, labor disputes, the impaired financial condition of a particular supplier, suppliers’ capacity allocations to other purchasers, changes in trade agreements and trade protection measures including tariffs, exchange rates and prevailing price levels, ability to meet regulatory requirements, weather emergencies and associated effects of climate change, the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic or other public health crises, or acts of war or terrorism. In particular, we have in the past and continue to experience capacity constraints and delays with respect to supply of electronic components. Any suspension or delay in our suppliers’ ability to provide us with necessary materials could impair our ability to timely deliver products to our customers and therefore could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition or results of operations.
A significant portion of our products and offerings in our Measurement & Control Solutions segment are affected by the availability, regulation of and interference with radio spectrum that we use.
A significant portion of the offerings in our Measurement & Control Solutions segment use radio spectrum, which is subject to government regulation. To the extent we introduce new products designed for use in the U.S. or another country, such products may require significant modification or redesign in order to meet frequency requirements and other regulatory specifications. In some countries, limitations on frequency availability or the cost of making necessary modifications may preclude us from selling our products in those countries. The regulations that govern our use of radio spectrum may change, which may require us to modify our products or seek new partnerships, either directly or due to interference caused by new consumer products allowed under the regulations. The inability to modify our products to meet such requirements, the possible delays in completing or the cost of such modifications could have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition, and results of operations. In addition, we may not be able to secure suitable partners for co-development of products.
In the U.S., our products are primarily designed to use FCC-licensed spectrum in the 900MHz range. If the FCC does not renew our existing spectrum licenses, our business could be adversely affected. In addition, there may be insufficient available frequencies in some markets to sustain or develop our planned operations at a commercially feasible price or at all.
Outside the U.S., certain of our products require the use of radio frequency and are subject to regulations. In some jurisdictions, radio station licenses may be granted for a fixed term and must be periodically renewed. Our advanced and smart metering systems offerings transmit to (and receive information from, if applicable) handheld, mobile, or fixed network reading devices in licensed bands made available to us through strategic partnerships and are reliant to some extent on the licensed spectrum continuing to be available through our partners or our customers. We may be unable to find partners or customers that have access to sufficient frequencies in some markets to sustain or develop our planned operations, or to find partners or customers that have access to sufficient frequencies in the relevant markets at a commercially feasible price or at all.
Failure to retain our existing senior management, engineering, technology, sales and other key personnel or the inability to attract and retain new qualified and diverse talent could negatively impact our business.
Our success will continue to depend to a significant extent on our ability to retain and attract employees in senior management positions, and in strategic or core competencies, including engineering, innovation, digital technologies, sales excellence, and project management. Our success in attracting and retaining employees will depend on our ability to offer attractive compensation, benefits, training and development opportunities in an increasingly competitive environment for talent, particularly in the fields of digital technologies, innovation and data science. In addition, advancing our culture of diversity and inclusion is an important factor for executing on our strategy, driving innovation, remaining competitive and creating long-term value. We also need to continue to develop qualified talent to support business growth and robust succession plans, which are important to our long-term success. A failure to attract or retain highly engaged and skilled personnel could adversely affect our ability to meet and exceed the needs of our customers, operate or grow our business and execute our strategy.
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We may not achieve some or all of the expected benefits of our restructuring and realignment plans or our restructuring and realignment may adversely affect our business.
In 2020, in response to the business and economic conditions resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as in recent fiscal years, we have initiated restructuring and realignment plans in an effort to optimize our cost structure, improve our operational efficiency and effectiveness, strengthen our competitive positioning and better serve our customers. We are also engaged in a multi-year effort to transform many of our support functions and related technologies, including Finance, Human Resources and Procurement. Challenges with the enabling technologies and delays in implementing planned restructuring and realignment activities have delayed the realization of some the expected operational and financial benefits from such actions. As such, we may not be able to obtain all of the cost savings and benefits that were initially anticipated in connection with our restructuring and realignment plans. Additionally, as a result of these plans, we may experience a loss of continuity, loss of accumulated knowledge or inefficiencies during transitional periods and ongoing operations. Realignment and restructuring require a significant amount of management and other employees' time and focus, which may divert attention from operating and growing our business.
The successful implementation and execution of our restructuring and realignment actions are critical to achieving our expected cost savings, as well as effectively competing in the marketplace and positioning us for future growth. Factors that may impede a successful implementation include the retention of key employees, the impact of regulatory matters including tax, matters involving certain third-party service providers selected to assist us, including staffing, technology, service providers’ compliance with our internal controls over financial reporting, and adverse economic market conditions. If our restructuring and realignment actions are not executed successfully, it could have material adverse impacts on the effectiveness of our internal controls over financial reporting, our competitive position, business, financial condition, cash flows and results of operations.
Our strategy includes acquisitions, and we may be unable to successfully execute or effectively integrate acquisitions.
As part of our growth strategy, we plan to continue to pursue the acquisition of other companies, assets, technologies, product lines and customer channels that either complement or expand our existing business or improve our competitive position. We may not be able to complete transactions with favorable terms or timing, or obtain financing that may be needed to consummate acquisitions or complete proposed acquisitions. In addition, our results of operations may be adversely impacted by: (i) the failure to successfully integrate acquired businesses into our operations, technology, and financial and other systems, (ii) the failure of acquired businesses to meet or exceed expected returns, which has led to, and in the future may lead to, accounting impairments, (iii) the discovery of unanticipated liabilities, labor relations difficulties, cybersecurity concerns, control or compliance issues, or other issues for which we lack contractual protections, insurance or indemnities.
Acquisitions involve a number of risks and present financial, managerial and operational challenges, including: diversion of management’s attention from existing businesses and operations; insufficient internal controls over financial or compliance activities or financial reporting; the failure to realize expected synergies; the assumption of new material risks associated with the acquired businesses; and the loss of key employees of the acquired businesses. Failure to successfully execute our growth strategy via acquisitions and successfully integrate these acquisitions could adversely affect our competitive position, business, financial condition or results of operations.
Product defects, unanticipated use or inadequate disclosures with respect to our products could adversely affect our business, reputation and financial statements.
Defects, inadequacies or quality issues in the manufacture, design, software, security or service of our products (including in products, parts or components that we source from third parties), unanticipated use, or inadequate disclosure of risks relating to the use of our products could result in product safety, product security, regulatory or environmental risks, including personal injury, death, property or environmental damage. These events could also lead to recalls, safety or security alerts relating to our products, result in the removal of a product from the market and/or result in warranty or liability claims against us. Although we have liability insurance, we cannot be certain that this insurance coverage will continue to be available to us at a reasonable cost or will be adequate to cover any or all aspects of liability claims. Manufacturing, design, software, security or service defects or inadequacies may also result in contractual damages against us, warranty expenses or issuance of credits, which could impact our profitability. Recalls, removals, and warranty, liability and quality claims can result in significant costs, as well as negative publicity and damage to our reputation that could reduce demand for our products and have a material adverse effect on our business, financial condition and results of operations.

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Our financial results can be difficult to predict.
Our business is impacted by a substantial amount of short cycle, and book-and-bill business, which we have limited insight into, particularly for the business that we transact through our significant distribution network. We are also impacted by our long cycle business, including large projects, which could be unexpectedly cancelled, or whose timing can change based upon customer requirements due to a number of factors affecting the project that are beyond our knowledge or control, such as funding, readiness of the project and regulatory approvals. Accordingly, our financial results for any given period can be difficult to predict.
Weather conditions, including the effects of climate change, may cause volatility in several served markets, and may affect our financial results.
The unpredictable nature of weather conditions, including heavy flooding, prolonged droughts and fluctuations in temperatures or weather patterns, including as a result of climate change, can positively or negatively impact portions of our business, as well as the operations of certain of our customers and suppliers. For example, heavy flooding and rain events, which may be due to global climate change, may increase demand for some of our solutions that may help customers manage water and storm water overflows. Within the dewatering space, pumps provided through our Godwin and Flygt brands are used to remove and transfer excess or unwanted water. On the other hand, prolonged drought conditions drive higher demand for pumps used in agriculture and turf irrigation applications, such as those provided by our Goulds Water Technology and Lowara brands. In addition, fluctuations in temperatures result in varying levels of demand for products used in residential and commercial hydronic applications, where homes and buildings use circulating water to heat and cool living spaces, such as those provided by our Bell & Gossett brand. Significant fluctuations in these weather conditions and climate changes can therefore result in volatility in our financial results.
Our debt obligations may adversely affect our business and our ability to meet our obligations and pay dividends.
As of December 31, 2020, our total outstanding indebtedness was $3,084 million as described under “Liquidity and Capital Resources" and we may incur additional debt in the future. Our indebtedness could have adverse consequences to us and our investors, including:
increasing our vulnerability to general adverse economic and industry conditions;
limiting our ability to obtain additional financing or borrow additional funds;
reducing or eliminating our ability to pay future dividends or repurchase our common stock;
limiting our flexibility in planning for, or reacting to, changes in our business and industry;
requiring a substantial portion of our cash flow from operations to make principal and interest payments;
reducing the cash flows available to fund working capital, capital expenditures, acquisitions or other general corporate purposes to grow business;
increasing the amount of interest expense that we must pay because some of our borrowings are at variable interest rates, which, as interest rates increase, would result in higher interest expense; and
increasing the risk of a future credit ratings downgrade, which could increase future debt costs and limit the availability of debt financing.
In addition, there can be no assurance that future borrowings or equity financing will be available to us on favorable terms or at all for the payment or refinancing of our indebtedness. The terms of the debt may also impose additional and more stringent restrictions on our operations than we currently have.
Our ability to make scheduled principal payments of, to pay interest on, or to refinance our indebtedness and to satisfy our other debt obligations will depend on our future cash flows from operations, which may not be sufficient and may be affected by factors beyond our control. If we are unable to service our indebtedness, our business, financial condition and results of operations would be materially adversely affected.
We may incur additional impairment charges for our goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets which would negatively impact our operating results.
We have a significant amount of goodwill and purchased intangible assets on our balance sheet as a result of acquisitions. As of December 31, 2020, the net carrying value of our goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets totaled approximately $3 billion. In accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, we evaluate these assets for impairment at least annually, or more frequently if changes in events or circumstances indicate it is
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more likely than not that a potential impairment could exist. Significant negative industry or economic trends, disruptions to our business or our customers’ business, inability to effectively integrate or scale acquired businesses, increases in cost of capital, unexpected significant changes or planned changes in use of the assets, failure of the FCC to renew radio spectrum licenses, divestitures and market capitalization declines may cause impairment of our goodwill and other indefinite-lived intangible assets. For example, in 2020 and 2019, we recorded goodwill impairment charges of $58 million and $148 million, respectively, within our Measurement & Control Solutions segment primarily related to the performance of the business of the Pure Technologies Ltd. acquisition ("Pure") (as detailed in Note 12, “Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets”). Material impairment charges have in the past and could in the future adversely affect our results of operations and financial condition.
Risks Related to Legal, Regulatory and Tax
Failure to comply with laws, regulations and policies, including the U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act, other applicable anti-corruption laws, trade regulations, and data privacy and security laws, could have a material adverse impact on our business, results of operations, financial condition and reputation.
Given our global operations, we are subject to regulation under a wide variety of U.S. federal and state and non-U.S. laws, regulations and policies, including laws and regulations related to anti-corruption, trade including export and import compliance, anti-trust and money laundering. Our policies mandate compliance with these laws and regulations. The U.S. Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (the "FCPA"), the U.K. Bribery Act of 2010 and similar anti-corruption laws in other jurisdictions generally prohibit companies and their intermediaries from making improper payments to government officials or other persons for the purpose of obtaining or retaining business. We operate in many parts of the world that are recognized as having governmental and commercial corruption and in certain circumstances, strict compliance with anti-corruption laws may conflict with local business customs and practices. We cannot guarantee that our internal controls, policies and procedures will always protect us from improper conduct of our employees or business partners. In the event that we believe or have reason to believe that our employees or business partners have or may have violated applicable laws, regulations or policies, including anti-corruption laws, we are required to investigate the relevant facts and circumstances, which can be expensive and require significant time and attention from senior management. Any such violation could result in substantial fines, sanctions, civil and/or criminal penalties, termination of relationships with business partners and curtailment of operations in certain jurisdictions, and as a result might materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition. In addition, actual or alleged violations could damage our reputation and ability to do business.
Additionally, to conduct our operations, we regularly move data across borders, and consequently we are subject to a variety of continuously evolving and developing laws and regulations regarding data privacy, data protection and data security, including the California Consumer Protection Act and the EU's GDPR. The scope of the laws that may be applicable to us is evolving, often uncertain and may be conflicting, particularly with respect to foreign laws. GDPR greatly increases the jurisdictional reach of EU law and adds a broad array of requirements for handling personal data, including the enforcement of data subject rights, enhanced security requirements, obligations to guarantee EU data subject rights are not compromised in countries outside the EU, and public disclosure of significant data breaches. Other countries, such as China, have enacted or are enacting data localization and security laws that require data to stay within their borders. All of these evolving legal and operational requirements impose significant costs of compliance that are likely to increase over time. Any such violation could result in substantial fines, sanctions and/or civil penalties, damage to our reputation and might materially and adversely affect our business, results of operations or financial condition.
Changes in our effective tax rates and tax expenses may adversely affect our financial results.
We sell our products in approximately 150 countries and 53% of our revenue was generated outside the U.S. in 2020. Given the global nature of our business, a number of factors may increase our effective tax rates and tax expense, including:
the geographic mix of jurisdictions in which profits are earned and taxed;
the statutory tax rates and tax laws in the jurisdictions in which we conduct business;
the resolution of tax issues arising from tax examinations by various tax authorities; and
the valuation of our deferred tax assets and liabilities.
Additionally, tax laws, regulations, and administrative practices in various jurisdictions may be subject to significant change, with or without notice, due to economic, political, and other conditions, and significant judgment is required in evaluating and estimating our provision and accruals for these taxes. The recent change in the U.S. Presidential administration increases the uncertainty with regard to potential changes in the U.S. federal tax laws and the interpretation or enforcement of legislation or directives by tax authorities.
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We are regularly examined by various tax authorities throughout the world and the resolutions of these examinations do not typically have a significant impact on our effective tax rates and tax expenses but they could. For example, following an examination regarding aspects of the reorganization of our European business that occurred in 2013, the Swedish tax authority issued a tax assessment to Xylem’s Swedish subsidiary in 2019, which we are appealing as further described in Note 7, “Income Taxes.” This examination as well as other examinations can result in increased tax assessments, and settlement or litigation about the assessments and final resolution could be adverse to Xylem. We regularly assess the likelihood of favorable or unfavorable outcomes resulting from these examinations to determine the adequacy of our provision for income taxes, including unrecognized tax benefits; however, developments in an audit or litigation could materially and adversely affect us. Although we believe our tax estimates and accruals are reasonable, there can be no assurance that any final determination will not be materially different than the treatment reflected in its historical income tax provisions, accruals and unrecognized tax benefits, which could materially and adversely affect our business, operating results, cash flows and financial condition.
We face risks related to legal and regulatory proceedings.
We are subject to various laws, ordinances, regulations and other requirements of government authorities in the U.S. and foreign countries, any violation of which could potentially create substantial liability for us and damage our reputation. Changes in laws, ordinances, regulations or other government policies, the nature, timing, and effect of which are uncertain, may significantly increase our expenses and liabilities.
From time to time, we are involved in legal and regulatory proceedings that are incidental to the operation of our businesses (or the business operations of previously-owned entities). These proceedings may seek remedies relating to environmental matters, tax, intellectual property, acquisitions or divestitures, product liability, property damage, personal injury, privacy, employment, labor and pensions, government contract issues and commercial or contractual disputes. Our continued transition to connected and digital technologies and solutions has increased our exposure to intellectual property litigation and we expect that this risk will continue to increase as we execute on our innovation and technology priorities.
It is not possible to predict with certainty the outcome of claims, investigations, regulatory proceedings and lawsuits, and we could in the future incur judgments, fines or penalties or enter into settlements and claims that could have an adverse effect on our reputation, our business, results of operations and financial condition. Additionally, we may be required to change or cease operations at one or more facilities if a regulatory agency determines that we have failed to comply with laws, regulations or orders applicable to our business.
The global and diverse nature of our operations, coupled with the increase in regulation and enforcement in many regions of the globe, means that legal and compliance risks will continue to exist and additional legal and regulatory proceedings and other contingencies, the outcome of which cannot be predicted with certainty, will arise from time to time. In addition, subsequent developments in legal and regulatory proceedings may affect our assessments and estimates of loss contingencies recorded as a reserve and require us to make payments in excess of our reserves, which could have an adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
Infringement or expiration of our intellectual property rights, or allegations that we have infringed upon the intellectual property rights of third parties could negatively affect us.
We own numerous patents, trademarks, copyrights, trade secrets and other intellectual property and licenses to intellectual property owned by others, that are important to our business. Our intellectual property rights may provide us with competitive advantage because they may help us differentiate our technologies, products and services, including our growing portfolio of data analytics and digitally-enabled offerings. However, our current or future intellectual property rights may not be sufficiently broad or may be challenged, invalidated, circumvented, misappropriated, independently developed, or designed-around, particularly given our international operations in countries where laws governing intellectual property rights are not highly developed, protected or enforced. Our failure to obtain or maintain intellectual property rights that convey competitive advantage, adequately protect our intellectual property, or detect or prevent circumvention, misappropriation or unauthorized use of such property, as well as the cost of enforcing our intellectual property rights, could adversely impact our business, financial condition and results of operations.
From time to time, we receive notices from third parties alleging intellectual property infringement or misappropriation. Any dispute or litigation regarding intellectual property could be costly and time-consuming to defend due to the complexity and uncertainty of intellectual property litigation. Our intellectual property portfolio may not be useful in asserting a counterclaim, or negotiating a license, in response to a claim of infringement or misappropriation. In addition, as a result of such claims of infringement or misappropriation, we could lose our rights to use critical technology, be unable to license critical technology or sell critical products and services, be required
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to pay substantial damages or license fees with respect to the use of third-party intellectual property rights, or be required to redesign our products at substantial cost, any of which could adversely impact our competitive position, financial condition and results of operations. Even if we successfully defend against claims of infringement or misappropriation, we may incur significant costs and diversion of management attention and resources, which could adversely affect our business, financial condition and results of operations.
Developments in, and compliance with, current and future environmental and climate change laws and regulations could impact our business, financial condition or results of operations.
Our business, operations, and product and service offerings are subject to and affected by many federal, state, local and foreign environmental laws and regulations, including those enacted in response to climate change concerns.
Climate change is receiving ever increasing attention globally as many governments, scientists and organizations, such as the United Nations, warn of the effects on our climate of increasing levels of greenhouse gases. Increased public and governmental awareness and concern regarding global climate change has led to significant legislative and regulatory efforts to limit greenhouse gas emissions and will likely result in increasing environmental and climate change laws or regulations. Compliance with these current and future laws and regulations currently requires, and is expected to continue to require, increasing operating and capital expenditures which could impact our business, financial condition and results of operations. Additionally, President Biden's administration may increase the likelihood of potential changes in these laws and regulations and the enforcement of any existing or new legislation or directives by government authorities.
Environmental laws and regulations may authorize substantial fines and criminal sanctions as well as facility shutdowns to address violations, and may require the installation of costly pollution control equipment or operational changes to limit emissions or discharges. We also incur, and expect to continue to incur, costs to comply with current environmental laws and regulations. Developments such as the adoption of new environmental laws and regulations, stricter enforcement of existing laws and regulations, violations by us of such laws and regulations, discovery of previously unknown or more extensive contamination, litigation involving environmental impacts, our inability to recover costs associated with any such developments, or financial insolvency of other responsible parties could in the future have a material adverse effect on our financial condition and results of operations.
Our Spin-off from ITT may expose us to potential liabilities.
Pursuant to the Distribution Agreement and certain other agreements with ITT (now ITT LLC) and Exelis (acquired by Harris Corporation, now L3Harris Technologies, Inc.), ITT and Exelis agreed to indemnify us for certain liabilities, and we agreed to indemnify ITT and Exelis for certain liabilities. Indemnities that we may be required to provide ITT and Exelis may be significant and could negatively impact our business. Third parties could also seek to hold us responsible for any of the liabilities that ITT or Exelis agreed to retain. Further, there can be no assurance that the indemnities from ITT and Exelis will be sufficient to protect us against the full amount of such liabilities, or that ITT and Exelis will be able to fully satisfy their indemnification obligations. Moreover, even if we ultimately were to succeed in recovering from ITT and Exelis any amounts for which we are held liable, we may be temporarily required to bear these losses ourselves. Each of these risks could negatively affect our business, results of operations, cash flow and financial condition.
Risks Related to Ownership of our Common Stock
The market price of our common stock may fluctuate significantly.
We cannot predict the prices at which our common stock may trade. The market price of our common stock may fluctuate widely, depending on many factors, some of which may be beyond our control, including:
actual or anticipated fluctuations in our operating results due to factors related to our business;
success or failure of our business strategy;
our ability to achieve long-term financial or non-financial (including sustainability) targets;
our quarterly or annual earnings, or those of other companies in our industry;
our ability to obtain financing as needed;
stock repurchases or payment of dividends;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant new business awards or technologies, product and service offerings;
announcements by us or our competitors of significant acquisitions or divestitures;
changes in accounting standards, policies, guidance, interpretations or principles;
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changes in earnings estimates or guidance by us or securities analysts or our ability to meet such guidance and estimates;
our ability to execute restructuring and realignment actions;
the operating and stock price performance of other comparable companies;
natural or environmental disasters or climate change considerations that investors believe may affect us;
uncertainty or instability arising from the global geopolitical environment or events, COVID-19 or other actual or potential pandemics;
fluctuations in foreign currency impacts;
fluctuations in the budgets or spending of federal, state and local governmental entities around the world;
results from any material litigation, governmental or regulatory body investigation, or tax examination;
changes in laws and regulations affecting our business; 
impact of trade protection measures including tariffs; and
overall market fluctuations or general economic conditions and other external factors.
Stock markets in general have experienced volatility that has often been unrelated to the operating performance of a particular company. These broad market fluctuations could adversely affect the trading price of our common stock.

ITEM 1B.    UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS.
None.

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ITEM 2.        PROPERTIES
We have approximately 375 locations in more than 50 countries. These properties total approximately 12 million square feet, of which more than 330 locations, or approximately 6.5 million square feet, are leased. We consider the offices, plants, warehouses and other properties that we own or lease to be in good condition and generally suitable for the purposes for which they are used. The following table shows our significant locations by segment:
LocationState or
Country
Principal Business ActivityApprox.
Square
Feet
Owned or
 Leased
Water Infrastructure
EmmabodaSwedenAdministration and Manufacturing1,197,000 Owned
StockholmSwedenAdministration and Research & Development182,000 Leased
BridgeportNJAdministration and Manufacturing136,000 Leased
ShenyangChinaManufacturing125,000 Owned
Yellow SpringsOHAdministration and Manufacturing112,000 Owned
QueningtonUnited KingdomManufacturing86,000 Leased
Applied Water
Morton GroveILAdministration and Manufacturing530,000 Owned
MontecchioItalyAdministration and Manufacturing379,000 Owned
NanjingChinaManufacturing363,000 Owned
AuburnNYManufacturing273,000 Owned
StockerauAustriaAdministration234,000 Owned
StrzelinPolandManufacturing185,000 Owned
CheektowagaNYManufacturing147,000 Owned
VadodaraIndiaManufacturing and Research & Development133,000 Leased
Measurement & Control Solutions
LudwigshafenGermanyManufacturing318,000 Owned
TexarkanaARManufacturing254,000 Owned
UniontownPAManufacturing240,000 Leased
DuBoisPAManufacturing197,000 Owned
DurhamNCAdministration and Research & Development170,000 Leased
DuBoisPAManufacturing137,000 Leased
Regional Locations
DubaiUnited Arab EmiratesManufacturing144,000 Owned
NottinghamshireUnited KingdomSales Office139,000 Leased
NanterreFranceSales Office139,000 Leased
LangenhagenGermanySales Office134,000 Owned
Corporate Headquarters
Rye BrookNYAdministration67,000 Leased


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ITEM 3.        LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
From time to time, we are involved in legal and regulatory proceedings that are incidental to the operation of our businesses (or the business operations of previously-owned entities). These proceedings may seek remedies relating to matters including environmental, tax, intellectual property, acquisitions or divestitures, product liability, property damage, personal injury, privacy, employment, labor and pension, government contract issues and commercial or contractual disputes. See Note 20, "Commitments and Contingencies", of the consolidated financial statements included in Item 8 of Part II of this 10-K for information regarding certain legal and regulatory proceedings we are involved in.
ITEM 4.        MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
The following information is provided regarding the executive officers of Xylem as of February 4, 2021:
NAMEAGECURRENT TITLEOTHER BUSINESS EXPERIENCE DURING PAST 5 YEARS
Patrick K. Decker56President and Chief Executive Officer (2014)
Sandra E. Rowland49Senior VP and Chief Financial Officer (2020)
• Executive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, Harman International Industries Inc. (2015)
Franz Cerwinka51Senior VP and President, Emerging Markets (2020)
Chief Executive Officer, Johnson Controls-Hitachi Air Conditioning (2015)
David Flinton50Senior VP and Chief Innovation, Technology & Product Management Officer (2019)
Geri McShane47VP, Controller and Chief Accounting Officer (2019)
• Controller, Accounting and Reporting (2016)
Matthew Pine49Senior VP and President, Applied Water Systems and Americas Commercial Team (2020)
• President, Carrier Residential, United Technologies Corporation (2018)
VP and General Manager, Carrier Residential, United Technologies Corporation (2017)
Colin R. Sabol53Senior VP and President, Measurement & Control Solutions (2017)
Kairus Tarapore59Senior VP and Chief Human Resources Officer (2015)
Claudia S. Toussaint57Senior VP, General Counsel and Chief Sustainability Officer (2014)
Hayati Yarkadas52Senior VP and President, Water Infrastructure and Europe Commercial Team (2020)• Senior Vice President and President, Performance Materials, Trinseo S.A. (2015)
Note: Date in parentheses indicates the year in which the position was assumed.
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BOARD OF DIRECTORS
The following information is provided regarding the Board of Directors of Xylem as of February 4, 2021:
NAMETITLE
Robert F. FrielBoard Chair, Xylem Inc., Former Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, PerkinElmer, Inc.
Jeanne Beliveau-DunnCEO and President of Claridad, LLC
Patrick K. DeckerPresident and Chief Executive Officer, Xylem Inc.
Jorge M. GomezExecutive Vice President, Chief Financial Officer, Dentsply Sirona, Inc.
Victoria D. HarkerExecutive Vice President and Chief Financial Officer, TEGNA, Inc.
Sten E. JakobssonFormer President and Chief Executive Officer, ABB AB
Steven R. LorangerFormer Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, ITT Corporation
Surya N. Mohapatra, Ph.D.Former Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, Quest Diagnostics Incorporated
Jerome A. PeribereFormer President and Chief Executive Officer, Sealed Air Corporation
Markos I. TambakerasFormer Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer, Kennametal, Inc.
Lila TretikovCorporate Vice President & Deputy Chief Technology Officer, Microsoft
Uday YadavPresident and Chief Operating Officer, Electrical Sector, Eaton

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PART II
ITEM 5.        MARKET FOR THE REGISTRANT’S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED STOCKHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Price and Dividends
Our common stock trades publicly on the New York Stock Exchange under the trading symbol “XYL”. As of January 31, 2021, there were 9,526 holders of record of our common stock.
Dividends are declared and paid on the common stock at the discretion of our Board of Directors and depend on our profitability, financial condition, capital needs, future prospects and other factors deemed relevant by our Board. Therefore, there can be no assurance as to what level of dividends, if any, will be paid in the future. In the first quarter of 2021, we declared a dividend of $0.28 per share to be paid on March 18, 2021 for shareholders of record on February 18, 2021.
There were no unregistered offerings of our common stock during 2020.
Fourth Quarter 2020 Share Repurchase Activity
The following table summarizes our purchases of our common stock for the quarter ended December 31, 2020:
(in millions, except per share amounts)
PeriodTotal Number of Shares PurchasedAverage Price Paid per Share (a)Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs (b)Approximate Dollar Value of Shares That May Yet Be Purchased Under the Plans or Programs (b)
10/1/20 - 10/31/20$288
11/1/20 - 11/30/20$288
12/1/20 - 12/31/20$288
(a)Average price paid per share is calculated on a settlement basis.
(b)On August 24, 2015, our Board of Directors authorized the repurchase of up to $500 million in shares with no expiration date. The program's objective is to deploy our capital in a manner that benefits our shareholders and maintains our focus on growth. There were no shares repurchased under this program during the three months ended December 31, 2020. There are up to $288 million in shares that may still be purchased under this plan as of December 31, 2020.


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PERFORMANCE GRAPH
CUMULATIVE TOTAL RETURN
The following graph compares the relative performance of our common stock, the S&P 500 Index and the S&P 500 Industrials Index. This graph covers the period from December 31, 2015 through December 31, 2020 and assumes that $100 was invested on December 31, 2015 in our common stock, the S&P 500 and the S&P 500 Industrials with the reinvestment of any dividends.
https://cdn.kscope.io/653b244462b5be5a46243c649b1c91f7-xyl-20201231_g2.jpg
XYLS&P 500S&P 500
Industrials
Index
December 31, 2015100 100 100 
December 31, 2016138 112 119 
December 31, 2017192 136 143 
December 31, 2018190 130 124 
December 31, 2019227 171 160 
December 31, 2020297 203 177 
The graph is not, and is not intended to be, indicative of future performance of our common stock.
This performance graph shall not be deemed “filed” with the SEC or subject to the liabilities of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, and should not be deemed incorporated by reference into any of our prior or subsequent filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, except as shall be expressly set forth by specific reference in such filing.
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ITEM 6.        SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
The following table sets forth selected consolidated financial data for the five years ended December 31, 2020. This selected consolidated financial data should be read in conjunction with “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” and the consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto included in this Report.
 Year Ended
December 31,
(in millions, except per share data)2020 (a) (b)2019 (a) (b)2018 (b)20172016 (c)
Results of Operations Data:
Revenue$4,876 $5,249 $5,207 $4,707 $3,771 
Gross profit1,830 2,046 2,026 1,847 1,462 
Gross margin37.5 %39.0 %38.9 %39.2 %38.8 %
Operating income367 486 654 552 408 
Operating margin7.5 %9.3 %12.6 %11.7 %10.8 %
Net income attributable to Xylem254 401 549 331 260 
Per Share Data:
Earnings per share:
Basic$1.41 $2.23 $3.05 $1.84 $1.45 
Diluted1.40 2.21 3.03 1.83 1.45 
Basic shares outstanding180.1 180.0 179.8 179.6 179.1 
Diluted shares outstanding181.1 181.2 181.1 180.9 180.0 
Cash dividends per share$1.04 $0.96 $0.84 $0.72 $0.62 
Balance Sheet Data (at period end):
Cash and cash equivalents$1,875 $724 $296 $414 $308 
Working capital*857 919 988 873 878 
Total assets 8,750 7,710 7,222 6,860 6,474 
Total debt 3,084 2,316 2,308 2,200 2,368 

*    The Company calculates Working capital as follows: net accounts receivable + inventories - accounts payable - customer advances.
(a)The amounts shown for the years ended December 31, 2020 and December 31, 2019 include goodwill impairment charges of $58 million and $148 million, respectively, related to the Advanced Infrastructure Analytics ("AIA") goodwill reporting unit. Refer to Note 12 to the consolidated financial statements for further information regarding goodwill.
(b)The amounts shown for the years ended December 31, 2020, December 31, 2019 and December 31, 2018 reflect the acquisition of Pure Technologies Ltd. Refer to Note 3 to the consolidated financial statements for further information regarding acquisitions.
(c)The amounts shown for the year ended December 31, 2016 don't reflect a full year of results for the acquisition of Sensus, which was acquired in October 2016.





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ITEM 7.        MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following discussion should be read in conjunction with our consolidated financial statements and the notes thereto. This discussion summarizes the significant factors affecting our results of operations and the financial condition of our business. Except as otherwise indicated or unless the context otherwise requires, “Xylem,” “we,” “us,” “our” and “the Company” refer to Xylem Inc. and its subsidiaries.
This section of this Form 10-K generally discusses 2020 and 2019 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2020 and 2019. Discussions of 2018 items and year-to-year comparisons between 2019 and 2018 that are not included in this Form 10-K can be found in “Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations” in Part II, Item 7 of the Company’s Annual Report on Form 10-K for the fiscal year ended December 31, 2019.
Overview
Xylem is a leading global water technology company. We design, manufacture and service highly engineered products and solutions ranging across a wide variety of critical applications in utility, industrial, residential and commercial building services settings. Our broad portfolio of solutions addresses customer needs across the water cycle, from the delivery, measurement and use of drinking water to the collection, test, treatment and analysis of wastewater to the return of water to the environment. Our product and service offerings are organized into three reportable segments that are aligned around the critical market applications they provide: Water Infrastructure, Applied Water and Measurement & Control Solutions.
Water Infrastructure serves the water infrastructure sector with pump systems that transport water from aquifers, lakes, rivers and seas; with filtration, ultraviolet and ozone systems that provide treatment, making the water fit to use; and pumping solutions that move the wastewater and storm water to treatment facilities where our mixers, biological treatment, monitoring and control systems provide the primary functions in the treatment process. We also provide sales and rental of specialty dewatering pumps and related equipment and services. Additionally, our offerings use monitoring and control, smart and connected technologies to allow for remote monitoring of performance and enable products to self-optimize pump operations maximizing energy efficiency and minimizing unplanned downtime and maintenance for our customers. In the Water Infrastructure segment, we provide the majority of our sales directly to customers along with strong applications expertise, while the remaining amount is through distribution partners.
Applied Water serves the water usage applications sector with water pressure boosting systems for heating, ventilation and air conditioning, and for fire protection systems to the residential and commercial building services markets. In addition, our pumps, heat exchangers and controls provide cooling to power plants and manufacturing facilities, circulation for food and beverage processing, as well as boosting systems for agricultural irrigation. In the Applied Water segment, we provide the majority of our sales through long-standing relationships with many of the leading independent distributors in the markets we serve, with the remainder going directly to customers.
Measurement & Control Solutions primarily serves the utility infrastructure solutions and services sector by delivering communications, smart metering, measurement and control technologies and critical infrastructure technologies that allow customers to more effectively use their distribution networks for the delivery, monitoring and control of critical resources such as water, electricity and natural gas. We also provide analytical instrumentation used to measure and analyze water quality, flow and level in clean water, wastewater, surface water and coastal environments. Additionally, we offer software and services including cloud-based analytics, remote monitoring and data management, leak detection, condition assessment, asset management and pressure monitoring solutions. In the Measurement & Control Solutions segment, we generate our sales through a combination of long-standing relationships with leading distributors and dedicated channel partners as well as direct sales depending on the regional availability of distribution channels and the type of product.

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COVID-19 Pandemic
The global spread of COVID-19 has curtailed the movement of people, goods and services worldwide, including in many of the regions where we sell our products and services and conduct operations.
This section summarizes the most significant impacts related to the COVID-19 pandemic that we have experienced to date, and we have included additional details as applicable throughout other sections of this Annual Report. Many of these impacts did not begin to be felt broadly across our businesses until the latter part of the first quarter of 2020 and have continued through the remainder of the year. As the COVID-19 pandemic began to unfold in the first quarter of 2020, Xylem deployed a COVID-19 Response Team, responsible for Xylem's Pandemic Plan, which is designed to aid in prevention, preparedness, response and recovery at our sites and across the Company.
Depending on the severity, magnitude and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic consequences, we anticipate that it will become more difficult to distinguish specific aspects of our operational and financial performance that are most directly related to COVID-19 from those that are more broadly influenced by ongoing macroeconomic, market and industry dynamics that are, to varying degrees, related to the COVID-19 pandemic and its consequences.
Public health officials have recommended, or governments have mandated, precautions to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, including stay at home or similar measures, such as travel restrictions, for periods of time in many of the areas in which we operate. Operationally, a number of our production facilities across the globe experienced reduced production levels due to such measures to varying degrees during the year, however our current overall operating capacity approximates normal levels globally. In order to maintain a safe work environment, our production facilities continue to spread operations over multiple shifts and implement other protective measures such as testing, temperature screening and social distancing, while maintaining operational capabilities.
The COVID-19 pandemic is also adversely affecting, and is expected to continue to adversely affect, our operations, supply chains and businesses. We expect to continue experiencing unpredictable interruptions with our external suppliers into 2021 that could lead to increased logistic costs. We have enhanced our supplier pulsing and redundancy to help mitigate these challenges and do not expect these interruptions to result in a material impact to our business. Additionally, we have in the past and may continue to take measures with respect to buffer stock to minimize freight and logistics delays. If these interruptions are sustained, or additional interruptions occur, they could have a negative impact on our results of operations.
To date, the most significant operational impacts we have experienced are volume reductions ranging across all segments and major geographic regions. Although regions such as Europe and China have started to recover and experienced organic revenue growth during the fourth quarter of 2020, recovery in regions such as the U.S., the Middle East and India continues to lag.
Future demand for our products and services is uncertain as the COVID-19 pandemic has also had an adverse impact on many of the customers we serve. As such, we have, and may continue to, experience decreased or delayed demand for our products and services. At the end of 2020, total backlog increased 17.9% as compared to December 31, 2019. In many cases, Xylem’s products and services are considered "essential services" under various governmental mandates, and as a result we did not experience significant issues in our ability to distribute products or services, aside from customer-driven project delays, inability to access or travel to customer sites and shipping delays due to stay at home measures. However, because the severity, magnitude and duration of the COVID-19 pandemic and its economic consequences are uncertain, the pandemic’s ongoing and future impacts on our business, financial condition, results of operations, and stock price remain uncertain and difficult to predict, and we expect that our results may continue to be adversely impacted beyond the year ending December 31, 2020.
In response to the changes in business and economic conditions arising as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, management committed to restructuring activities across our businesses and functions globally during the second quarter of 2020. These initiatives are designed to support our long-term financial resilience and simplify our operations, strengthen our competitive positioning and better serve our customers. In light of the uncertainty created by the COVID-19 pandemic, we also proactively took further cost reduction actions in 2020, which included a temporary 20% reduction in the base salary of the Company's Chief Executive Officer ("CEO") and all CEO direct reports, and a temporary 20% reduction in annual cash retainer fees payable to our Board of Directors effective from June 1, 2020 through December 31, 2020. Additionally, in 2020 we committed to reduced capital expenditure and discretionary operating spending. We anticipate that our capital expenditure spending will ramp up to more normal levels throughout 2021 as we see improvements in our markets.
Since the pandemic started, Xylem has taken measures to protect the health and safety of our employees, work with our customers to minimize potential disruptions and positively impact our communities. In the first quarter of
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2020, we implemented a support pay program for employees impacted by COVID-19, and an essential services premium pay program for the benefit of employees whose roles are classified as an “essential service” and, as such, are required to work either onsite at a Xylem facility or in the field supporting customers during periods of mandated stay at home or similar measures. These programs will remain in place through the first quarter of 2021 and continue to be evaluated for continuation as necessary going forward. Xylem Watermark, our corporate social responsibility program, is also supporting our communities in addressing the challenges posed by this global pandemic through its partnership with Americares and UNICEF, as well as the expansion of the Partner Community Grants program and matching donations program for employees and partners, and other philanthropic commitments. During 2020, Xylem also re-purposed internal manufacturing capabilities and, working with our partners, leveraged our supply chain to donate 300,000 pieces of personal protective equipment ("PPE") to frontline workers.
Many of our offices globally have transitioned to a substantially remote work from home status, with no material disruption to operations, financial reporting systems, internal control over financial reporting or disclosure controls and procedures. As public health officials and governments ease recommendations and regulations regarding stay at home measures, our COVID-19 Response Team applies a set of Xylem "Return to Workplace" health and safety guidelines for remote workers to return to our facilities. These guidelines require government officials to first declare an easing of their restrictions, upon which we do a full review of our site to determine its readiness and follow a phased return to work approach, all in service to help ensure the safety of our people.
We will continue to work with our customers, employees, suppliers and communities to address the impacts of COVID-19. We also continue to assess the evolving nature of the pandemic and its possible implications to our business, supply chain and customers, and to take actions in an effort to mitigate adverse consequences.
Risks related to the impact of COVID-19 are described in further detail under "Item 1A. Risk Factors".
Key Performance Indicators and Non-GAAP Measures
Management reviews key performance indicators including revenue, gross margins, segment operating income and operating income margins, EBITDA and EBITDA margins, orders growth, working capital and backlog, among others. In addition, we consider certain non-GAAP (or "adjusted") measures to be useful to management and investors evaluating our operating performance for the periods presented, and to provide a tool for evaluating our ongoing operations, liquidity and management of assets. This information can assist investors in assessing our financial performance and measures our ability to generate capital for deployment among competing strategic alternatives and initiatives, including, but not limited to, dividends, acquisitions, share repurchases and debt repayment. Excluding revenue, Xylem provides guidance only on a non-GAAP basis due to the inherent difficulty in forecasting certain amounts that would be included in GAAP earnings, such as discrete tax items, without unreasonable effort. These adjusted metrics are consistent with how management views our business and are used to make financial, operating and planning decisions. These metrics, however, are not measures of financial performance under GAAP and should not be considered a substitute for revenue, operating income, net income, earnings per share (basic and diluted) or net cash from operating activities as determined in accordance with GAAP. We consider the following items represent the non-GAAP measures we consider to be key performance indicators, as well as the related reconciling items to the most directly comparable measure calculated and presented in accordance with GAAP. The non-GAAP measures may not be comparable to similarly-titled measures reported by other companies.
"organic revenue" and "organic orders" defined as revenue and orders, respectively, excluding the impact of fluctuations in foreign currency translation and contributions from acquisitions and divestitures. Divestitures include sales or discontinuance of insignificant portions of our business that did not meet the criteria for classification as a discontinued operation. The period-over-period change resulting from foreign currency translation impacts is determined by translating current period and prior period activity using the same currency conversion rate.
"constant currency" defined as financial results adjusted for foreign currency translation impacts by translating current period and prior period activity using the same currency conversion rate. This approach is used for countries whose functional currency is not the U.S. Dollar.
"adjusted net income" and "adjusted earnings per share" defined as net income and earnings per share, respectively, adjusted to exclude restructuring and realignment costs, special charges, gain or loss from sale of businesses and tax-related special items, as applicable. A reconciliation of adjusted net income and adjusted earnings per share is provided below.
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(in millions, except per share data)20202019
Net income & Earnings per share$254 $1.40 $401 $2.21 
Restructuring and realignment, net of tax of $17 and $19 60 0.33 63 0.35 
Special charges, net of tax of $10 and $6 76 0.42 172 0.95 
Tax-related special items(16)(0.09)(88)(0.48)
(Gain) loss from sale of business, net of tax benefit of $0   (1)(0.01)
Adjusted net income & Adjusted earnings per share$374 $2.06 $547 $3.02 
"adjusted operating expenses" and "adjusted gross profit" defined as operating expenses and gross profit, respectively, adjusted to exclude restructuring and realignment costs and special charges.
"adjusted operating income" defined as operating income, adjusted to exclude restructuring and realignment costs and special charges, and "adjusted operating margin" defined as adjusted operating income divided by total revenue.
“EBITDA” defined as earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization expense, "EBITDA margin" defined as EBITDA divided by total revenue, "adjusted EBITDA" reflects the adjustment to EBITDA to exclude share-based compensation charges, restructuring and realignment costs, special charges and gain or loss from sale of businesses, and "adjusted EBITDA margin" defined as adjusted EBITDA divided by total revenue.
(in millions)20202019
Net Income$254 $401
Income tax expense31 15
Interest expense, net70 62
Depreciation117 117
Amortization134 140
EBITDA$606 $735
EBITDA Margin12.4 %14.0 %
Share-based compensation 26 29
Restructuring and realignment77 82
Special charges86 178
(Gain) loss from sale of business (1)
Adjusted EBITDA$795 $1,023
Adjusted EBITDA Margin16.3 %19.5 %
“realignment costs” defined as costs not included in restructuring costs that are incurred as part of actions taken to reposition our business, including items such as professional fees, severance, relocation, travel, facility set-up and other costs.
“special charges" defined as costs incurred by the Company, such as acquisition and integration related costs, non-cash impairment charges and both operating and non-operating adjustments for pension costs.
"tax-related special items" defined as tax items, such as tax return versus tax provision adjustments, tax exam impacts, tax law change impacts, excess tax benefits/losses and other discrete tax adjustments.
"free cash flow" defined as net cash from operating activities, as reported in the Statement of Cash Flows, less capital expenditures. Our definition of "free cash flow" does not consider certain non-discretionary cash payments, such as debt. The following table provides a reconciliation of free cash flow.
(in millions)20202019
Net cash provided by operating activities$824 $839 
Capital expenditures(183)(226)
Free cash flow$641 $613 
Net cash used in investing activities$(169)$(231)
Net cash provided (used) by financing activities$473 $(177)
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Executive Summary
Xylem reported revenue of $4,876 million for 2020, a decrease of $373 million, or 7.1%, from $5,249 million reported in 2019. On a constant currency basis, revenue decreased by $366 million, or 7.0%, driven by an organic decline across all end markets and across all segments during the year. Organic revenue decline during the year was anticipated as our business was negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Operating income for 2020 was $367 million, reflecting a decrease of $119 million, or 24.5%, compared to $486 million in 2019. Operating margin was 7.5% for 2020 versus 9.3% for 2019, a decrease of 180 basis points. Operating margin benefited from decreases in special charges of $78 million and decreases in restructuring and realignment costs of $5 million during the year. Excluding the impact of these items, adjusted operating income was $525 million, with an adjusted operating margin of 10.8% in 2020 as compared to adjusted operating income of $727 million with an adjusted operating margin of 13.9% in 2019, a decrease of 310 basis points. The decrease in adjusted operating margin was primarily due to unfavorable volume, impacted significantly by COVID-19; cost inflation; increased quality management costs; unfavorable mix and increased spending on strategic investments. These impacts were partially offset by cost reductions from our productivity, restructuring and other cost saving initiatives.
Additional financial highlights for 2020 include the following:
Net income of $254 million, or $1.40 per diluted share ($374 million or $2.06 per diluted share on an adjusted basis, down 31.6% from 2019)
Net cash provided by operating activities of $824 million and free cash flow of $641 million, up 5% from 2019
Orders of $5,033 million, down 5.7% from $5,339 million in 2019 (down 5.3% on an organic basis), impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic; and
Dividends paid to shareholders increased 8% in 2020.
2021 Business Outlook
We anticipate total revenue growth in the range of 6% to 8% in 2021, with organic revenue growth anticipated to be in the range of 3% to 5%. The following is a summary of our 2020 organic revenue performance and 2021 organic revenue outlook by end market.
Utilities revenue decreased by approximately 6% for 2020 on an organic basis driven by weakness in the U.S., the Middle East and Asia Pacific, partially offset by strength in Europe. For 2021, we expect organic growth in the low-to-mid single-digit range with continued resilience on the wastewater side, as utilities remain focused on mission-critical applications and anticipate modest recovery on a global basis through the year. Additionally, we expect that large clean water utility project deployments will be ramping up beginning in the second quarter and increasing throughout the end of the year. We expect to gain momentum behind key multi-year wins setting up healthy longer term growth, however we believe the end market will continue to be impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic through the year.
Industrial revenue decreased by approximately 10% for 2020 on an organic basis driven by weakness across all major geographic regions. For 2021, we expect organic revenue to be relatively flat to up low-single-digits as short-cycle orders and project activity continues to pick up during the year, however activity is still likely to be limited in the near-term by COVID-19 impacts. We expect that continued softness in the segments served by our dewatering business in North America will stabilize and begin to accelerate through the year.

In the commercial markets, organic revenue decline was approximately 6% for 2020 driven by weakness in the U.S. and the emerging markets, partially offset by strength in western Europe. For 2021, we expect organic revenue to be relatively flat to down low-single-digits. We expect replacement business in the U.S. to be modestly soft during the year, as the COVID-19 pandemic continues to impact market conditions. While we anticipate healthy activity in Europe as the region continues to recover, we expect new construction activity in North America to be slow throughout the first half of the year.

In residential markets, organic revenue decline was approximately 2% in 2020 driven by weakness in the U.S. and western Europe, partially offset by strength in Asia Pacific. This market is primarily driven by replacement revenue serviced through our distribution network. For 2021, we expect organic revenue to be up low-to-mid single digits, driven by healthy demand activity from increased residential users in the U.S.
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and Europe. Additionally, we anticipate strong demand in China for secondary water supply product applications.
We will continue to strategically execute restructuring and realignment actions in an effort to optimize our cost structure, improve our operational efficiency and effectiveness, strengthen our competitive positioning and better serve our customers. During 2020, we incurred $54 million and $23 million in restructuring and realignment costs, respectively. We realized approximately $25 million of incremental net savings in 2020 from actions initiated in 2019, and an additional $22 million of net savings from our 2020 actions. As a result of our 2019 and 2020 actions we expect to realize approximately $46 million of incremental net savings in 2021 and beyond. During 2021, we currently expect to incur between $50 million and $60 million in restructuring and realignment costs.
We plan to continue to take actions and focus spending in 2021 on actions that allow us to make progress on our top strategic priorities. These priorities include (1) driving customer success by focusing on enhancing the customer experience, accelerating the digital transformation of water and building a leadership position in services and solutions; (2) growing in the Emerging Markets by investing in localizing our capabilities in these regions; (3) strengthening innovation and technology by creating new customer offerings that help solve water challenges in a more powerful way; (4) enhancing operational excellence by building a culture of continuous improvement; and (5) cultivating leadership talent and development that drives shareholder value creation.



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Results of Operations
(in millions)202020192020 v. 2019
Revenue$4,876 $5,249 (7.1)%
Gross profit1,830 2,046 (10.6)%
Gross margin37.5 %39.0 %(150)bp
Restructuring and realignment costs6 20.0 %
Adjusted gross profit1,836 2,051 (10.5)%
Adjusted gross margin37.7 %39.1 %(140)bp
Total operating expenses1,463 1,560 (6.2)%
Expense to revenue ratio30.0 %29.7 %30 bp
Restructuring and realignment costs(71)(77)(7.8)%
Special charges(81)(159)(49.1)%
Adjusted operating expenses1,311 1,324 (1.0)%
Adjusted operating expenses to revenue ratio26.9 %25.2 %170 bp
Operating income367 486 (24.5)%
Operating margin7.5 %9.3 %(180)bp
Interest and other non-operating expense, net82 71 15.5 %
Gain (loss) from sale of business NM
Income tax expense31 15 106.7 %
Tax rate10.9 %3.7 %720 bp
Net income$254 $401 (36.7)%
NM     Not Meaningful

2020 versus 2019
Revenue
Revenue generated for 2020 was $4,876 million, a decrease of $373 million, or 7.1%, compared to $5,249 million in 2019. On a constant currency basis, revenue declined 7.0% during 2020. The decrease at constant currency was driven by a decline in organic revenue of $364 million reflecting significantly lower volumes in the U.S., primarily, as well as the Middle East, India and Latin America, largely due to COVID-19, partially offset by growth in Europe and China during the year.
The following table illustrates the impact from organic declines, recent acquisitions and divestitures, and foreign currency translation in relation to revenue during 2020:
Water InfrastructureApplied WaterMeasurement & Control SolutionsTotal Xylem
(in millions)$ Change% Change$ Change% Change$ Change% Change$ Change% Change
2019 Revenue$2,177 $1,541 $1,531 $5,249 
Organic Impact(89)(4.1)%(108)(7.0)%(167)(10.9)%(364)(6.9)%
Acquisitions/(Divestitures)— — %— — %(2)(0.1)%(2)— %
Constant Currency(89)(4.1)%(108)(7.0)%(169)(11.0)%(366)(7.0)%
Foreign currency translation (a)(9)(0.4)%0.1 %0.1 %(7)(0.1)%
Total change in revenue(98)(4.5)%(107)(6.9)%(168)(11.0)%(373)(7.1)%
2020 Revenue$2,079 $1,434 $1,363 $4,876 
(a)Foreign currency translation impact for the year primarily due to the weakening in value of various currencies against the U.S. Dollar, the largest being the Russian Ruble, the Norwegian Krone, the Brazilian Real, the South African Rand and the Chilean Peso. These impacts were partially offset by the strengthening of the Euro during the year.
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Water Infrastructure
Water Infrastructure revenue decreased $98 million, or 4.5%, to $2,079 million in 2020 (4.1% decrease on a constant currency basis) compared to 2019. Revenue was negatively impacted by $9 million of foreign currency translation, with the change at constant currency coming entirely from an organic decline during the year of $89 million. Organic weakness during the year was primarily driven by the industrial end market, particularly in North America and the emerging markets, heavily impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic during the year. Organic revenue decline during the year was also impacted by weakness, to a lesser extent, in the utility end market, particularly in the U.S., partially offset by organic growth in Europe during the year. The COVID-19 pandemic negatively impacted organic growth during the year throughout the entire segment and both end markets.
From an application perspective, the organic revenue decline for the year was driven by our transport application, where market conditions continued to soften in the U.S. in the dewatering applications, with construction, mining, oil and gas all down during the year. We also saw organic revenue decline in Asia Pacific within the transport application, primarily in India, where we lapped some large projects executed in the prior year, as well as in Latin America. These declines were partially offset by organic growth in Europe during the year, where demand for essential service work increased during the fourth quarter. Organic revenue declines within the transport application were partially offset by modest organic growth in the treatment application during the year, primarily driven by projects in the emerging markets.
Applied Water
Applied Water revenue decreased $107 million, or 6.9%, in 2020 (7.0% decrease on a constant currency basis) compared to 2019. Revenue benefited from $1 million of foreign currency translation, with the change at constant currency coming entirely from an organic decline during the year of $108 million. Organic weakness during the year was driven by declines across all end markets and applications, with industrial water and commercial building services declining the most, followed by a modest decline in building services in the residential market as well. Organic revenue declines in the segment were driven by the COVID-19 pandemic, where restricted activities caused a slow down and general softening in markets served, particularly in the U.S., the emerging markets and western Europe.
Measurement & Control Solutions
Measurement & Control Solutions revenue decreased $168 million, or 11.0%, in 2020 (11.0% decrease on a constant currency basis) compared to 2019. Revenue benefited from $1 million of foreign currency translation during the year, with the change at constant currency driven by an organic decline of $167 million, or 10.9%, and to a lesser extent, $2 million of reduced revenue related to divestiture impacts during the year. Organic weakness during the year was driven by declines in the utility end market, primarily in the U.S., the Middle East and India, marginally offset by organic growth in western Europe during the year. Organic declines were also driven, to a lesser extent, by weakness in the industrial end market, primarily in western Europe, North America, and the Middle East. Organic revenue declines in the segment were significantly impacted by project timing and the COVID-19 pandemic during the year.
From an application perspective, the organic revenue decline was primarily driven by the water application, where we lapped large prior year project deployments in the U.S. and Middle East and the COVID-19 pandemic drove project delays, primarily due to site-access restrictions, and overall market softness in the U.S. The energy application also had a decline in organic revenue as compared to the prior year, primarily in the U.S. as we lapped a few large gas project deployments and have been negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The test application also experienced organic revenue decline during the year driven by negative impacts from the COVID-19 pandemic across most major geographic regions, and the lapping of a couple large prior year project executions in the Middle East. The software as a service ("SaaS") application had a modest decline in revenue as compared to the prior year, primarily in the U.S.


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Orders/Backlog
An order represents a legally enforceable, written document that includes the scope of work or services to be performed or equipment to be supplied to a customer, the corresponding price and the expected delivery date for the applicable products or services to be provided. An order often takes the form of a customer purchase order or a signed quote from a Xylem business. Orders received during 2020 decreased by $306 million, or 5.7%, to $5,033 million (5.4% decrease on a constant currency basis). Order intake during the year was negatively impacted by $18 million of foreign currency translation. The order decline on a constant currency basis primarily consisted of organic order declines of $284 million, or 5.3%, over the prior year.
The following table illustrates the impact from organic declines, recent acquisitions and divestitures, and foreign currency translation in relation to orders during 2020:
Water InfrastructureApplied WaterMeasurement & Control SolutionsTotal Xylem
(in millions)$ Change% Change$ Change% Change$ Change% Change$ Change% Change
2019 Orders$2,234 $1,556 $1,549 $5,339 
Organic Impact(80)(3.6)%(73)(4.7)%(131)(8.5)%(284)(5.3)%
Acquisitions/(Divestitures)— — %— — %(4)(0.3)%(4)(0.1)%
Constant Currency(80)(3.6)%(73)(4.7)%(135)(8.7)%(288)(5.4)%
Foreign currency translation (a)(20)(0.9)%— — %0.1 %(18)(0.3)%
Total change in orders(100)(4.5)%(73)(4.7)%(133)(8.6)%(306)(5.7)%
2020 Orders$2,134 $1,483 $1,416 $5,033 
(a)Foreign currency translation impact for the year primarily due to the weakening in value of various currencies against the U.S. Dollar, the largest being the Russian Ruble, the Norwegian Krone, the Brazilian Real, the South African Rand and the Chilean Peso. These impacts were partially offset by the strengthening of the Euro during the year.
Water Infrastructure
Water Infrastructure segment orders decreased $100 million, or 4.5%, to $2,134 million (3.6% decrease on a constant currency basis). Order intake during the year was negatively impacted by $20 million of foreign currency translation, with the change at constant currency coming from organic order decline in the transport application, which was partially offset by growth in the treatment application during the year. The transport application experienced an organic order decline during the year, primarily driven by market weakness in construction, mining, and oil and gas impacting the dewatering application in North America, along with the lapping of a large project order in India in the prior year. Organic growth in the treatment application was primarily driven by strong order intake in North America. The COVID-19 pandemic also negatively impacted organic order growth for the segment during the year.
Applied Water
Applied Water segment orders decreased $73 million to $1,483 million, or 4.7%, as compared to the prior year and was not significantly impacted by foreign currency translation during the year. The order decrease was primarily driven by organic weakness across all end markets, primarily in the U.S. and, to a lesser extent, in the emerging markets and western Europe. The organic order growth for the segment during the year was negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Measurement & Control Solutions
Measurement & Control Solutions segment orders decreased $133 million, or 8.6%, to $1,416 million (8.7% decrease on a constant currency basis). Order intake during the year benefited from $2 million of foreign currency translation, with the change at constant currency driven by an organic decline of $131 million and, to a lesser extent, a $4 million reduction in orders related to divestiture impacts during the year. Organic weakness during the year was driven by the water application, where we lapped prior year project orders and, to a lesser extent, the energy application, where prior year gas project deployments more than offset strong electric order intake during the year. The SaaS application also contributed to the organic decline during the year, driven by the lapping of large project orders in North America during the prior year. The test application also experienced a reduction in order intake during the year, primarily in the U.K and the U.S. The COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted the organic order growth during the year.
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Backlog
Backlog includes orders on hand as well as contractual customer agreements at the end of the period. Delivery schedules vary from customer to customer based on their requirements. Annual or multi-year contracts are subject to rescheduling and cancellation by customers due to the long-term nature of the contracts. As such, beginning total backlog, plus orders, minus revenues, will not equal ending total backlog due to contract adjustments, foreign currency fluctuations, and other factors. Typically, large projects require longer lead production cycles and deployment schedules and delays can occur from time to time. Total backlog was $2,124 million at December 31, 2020 and $1,801 million at December 31, 2019, an increase of 17.9%. We anticipate that approximately 55% of our total backlog at December 31, 2020 will be recognized as revenue during 2021.
Gross Margin
Gross margin as a percentage of consolidated revenue decreased 150 basis points to 37.5% in 2020 as compared to 39.0% in 2019. The gross margin decrease for the year was primarily driven by cost inflation, increased quality management costs, unfavorable mix, unfavorable volume, impacted by COVID-19, and other lesser impacts, which were partially offset by cost reductions from our global procurement and productivity improvement initiatives and price realization.
Operating Expenses
(in millions)20202019Change
Selling, general and administrative expenses ("SG&A")$1,143 $1,158 (1.3)%
SG&A as a % of revenue23.4 %22.1 %130 bp
Research and development expenses ("R&D")187 191 (2.1)%
R&D as a % of revenue3.8 %3.6 %20 bp
Restructuring and asset impairment charges75 63 19.0 %
Goodwill impairment charge58 148 (60.8)%
Operating expenses$1,463 $1,560 (6.2)%
Expense to revenue ratio30.0 %29.7 %30 bp
Selling, General and Administrative ("SG&A") Expenses
SG&A expenses decreased by $15 million (decrease of 1.3%) to 23.4% of revenue in 2020, as compared to 22.1% of revenue in 2019. The increase in SG&A as a percent of revenue for the year was primarily driven by the drop in revenue, which was significantly driven by impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as cost inflation and additional investment in strategic growth initiatives. Cost reductions from our productivity, restructuring and other cost saving initiatives partially offset these items.
Research and Development ("R&D") Expenses
R&D expense was $187 million, or 3.8% of revenue, in 2020 as compared to $191 million, or 3.6% of revenue, in 2019. The increase in R&D as a percent of revenue for year was primarily driven by the Company's continued focus on strategic investments during the year, while revenue was negatively impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic.
Restructuring and Asset Impairment Charges
Restructuring
In response to the changes in business and economic conditions arising as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, on June 2, 2020 management committed to a restructuring plan that includes actions across our businesses and functions globally. The plan is designed to support our long-term financial resilience and simplify our operations, strengthen our competitive positioning and better serve our customers.
As a result of this action, during 2020, we recognized restructuring charges of $20 million, $4 million and $30 million in our Water Infrastructure, Applied Water and Measurement & Control Solutions segments, respectively. These charges included reduction of headcount across all segments and asset impairments within our Measurement & Control Solutions segment. Immaterial restructuring charges incurred during the first quarter are included in the plan information presented below.
During 2019, we recognized restructuring costs of $20 million, $5 million and $28 million in our Water Infrastructure, Applied Water and Measurement & Control Solutions, respectively. These charges were incurred primarily as a continuation of our efforts to reposition our European and North American businesses to optimize our cost structure
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and improve our operational efficiency and effectiveness. The charges included the reduction of headcount and consolidation of facilities within our Measurement & Control Solutions and Water Infrastructure segments, as well as headcount reductions within our Applied Water segment.
The following is a roll-forward of employee position eliminations associated with restructuring activities for the years ended December 31, 2020 and 2019:
20202019
Planned reductions - January 1196 69 
Additional planned reductions811 674 
Actual reductions and reversals(688)(547)
Planned reductions - December 31319 196 
The following table presents expected restructuring spend in 2020 and thereafter:
(in millions)Water InfrastructureApplied WaterMeasurement & Control SolutionsCorporateTotal
Actions Commenced in 2020:
Total expected costs$26 $11 $34 $$73 
Costs incurred during 202019 30 — 53 
Total expected costs remaining$7 $7 $4 $2 $20 
Actions Commenced in 2019:
Total expected costs$19 $$27 $— $51 
Costs incurred during 201918 27 — 50 
Costs incurred during 2020— — — 
Total expected costs remaining$ $ $ $ $ 
The Water Infrastructure, Applied Water, and Measurement & Control Solutions actions commenced in 2020 consist primarily of severance charges in each of the segments and asset impairment charges in our Measurement & Control Solutions segment. These actions are expected to continue through 2021. The Water Infrastructure, Applied Water, and Measurement & Control Solutions actions commenced in 2019 consist primarily of severance charges. The actions commenced in 2019 are complete.
During the second quarter of 2020 the discontinuance of a product line resulted in $17 million of asset impairments, primarily related to customer relationships, trademarks and fixed assets within our Measurement & Control Solutions segment.
These restructuring charges are primarily related to actions taken in response to the changes in business and economic conditions arising as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. As a result of the actions initiated in 2020, we achieved savings of approximately $22 million in 2020 and estimate annual future net savings beginning in 2021 of approximately $63 million, resulting in $41 million of incremental savings from 2020 actions
Asset Impairment
During the second and third quarters of 2020, we determined that certain assets within our Measurement & Control Solutions segment, including software, proprietary technology, and internally developed in-process software, were impaired. Accordingly we recognized impairment charges of $21 million during the year. Refer to Note 12, "Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets," for additional information.
During the first and third quarters of 2019, we determined that certain assets within our Measurement & Control Solutions segment, including customer relationships, internally developed software, proprietary technology, and plant property & equipment, were impaired. Accordingly we recognized impairment charges of $10 million during the year. Refer to Note 12, "Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets," for additional information.
Goodwill Impairment Charge
During the third quarter of 2020, the Company recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $58 million related to the AIA goodwill reporting unit within our Measurement & Control Solutions segment. The AIA goodwill reporting unit is
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comprised of our assessment services business (primarily the Pure acquisition) as well as our digital solutions business. The impairment resulted from management's updated forecast of future cash flows for the AIA businesses, which reflects significant negative volume impacts, primarily on our assessment services business, due to travel restrictions and site closures as a result of the COVID-19 pandemic. Our ongoing investment in the AIA businesses also continues to impact near-term profitability. These factors drove a decrease in the fair value, based on a discounted cash flow valuation, of the AIA goodwill reporting unit that is below its carrying value as of the third quarter, requiring an impairment charge. Refer to Note 12, "Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets," for additional information.
During the third quarter of 2019, the Company recorded a goodwill impairment charge of $148 million related to the AIA goodwill reporting unit. The impairment resulted from a downward revision of forecasted future cash flows. Factors that contributed to the revised forecast in the third quarter of 2019 included lower-than-expected results as compared to prior forecasts, largely as a result of slower-than-expected conversion of pipeline opportunities to revenue. Additionally, we have continued to invest in the AIA platform ahead of the adoption curve, which has also impacted the near-term profitability of the business. These factors drove a decrease in the fair value, based on a discounted cash flow valuation, of the AIA goodwill reporting unit that was below its carrying value as of July 1, 2019, requiring an impairment charge. Refer to Note 12, "Goodwill and Other Intangible Assets," for additional information.
Operating Income
Operating income was $367 million (operating margin of 7.5%) during 2020, a decrease of $119 million, or 24.5%, when compared to operating income of $486 million (operating margin of 9.3%) during the prior year. Operating margin benefited from decreases in special charges of $78 million and decreases in restructuring and realignment costs of $5 million as compared to the prior year. Excluding these special charges and restructuring and realignment costs, adjusted operating income was $525 million (adjusted operating margin of 10.8%) for 2020 as compared to adjusted operating income of $727 million (adjusted operating margin of 13.9%) during the prior year. The decrease in adjusted operating margin was primarily due to unfavorable volume, impacted significantly by COVID-19; cost inflation; increased quality management costs; unfavorable mix and increased spending on strategic investments. These impacts were partially offset by cost reductions from our productivity, restructuring and other cost saving initiatives.

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The table below provides a reconciliation of total and each segment's operating income to adjusted operating income, and a calculation of the corresponding adjusted operating margin:
(In millions)20202019Change
Water Infrastructure
Operating income$318 $365 (12.9)%
Operating margin15.3 %16.8 %(150)bp
Restructuring and realignment costs28 31 (9.7)%
Adjusted operating income$346 $396 (12.6)%
Adjusted operating margin16.6 %18.2 %(160)bp
Applied Water
Operating income$205 $241 (14.9)%
Operating margin14.3 %15.6 %(130)bp
Restructuring and realignment costs9 13 (30.8)%
Adjusted operating income$214 $254 (15.7)%
Adjusted operating margin14.9 %16.5 %(160)bp
Measurement & Control Solutions
Operating loss$(106)$(67)58.2 %
Operating margin(7.8)%(4.4)%(340)bp
Restructuring and realignment costs40 38 5.3 %
Special charges79 159 (50.3)%
Adjusted operating income$13 $130 (90.0)%
Adjusted operating margin1.0 %8.5 %(750)bp
Corporate and other
Operating loss$(50)$(53)(5.7)%
Special charges2 — NM
Adjusted operating loss$(48)$(53)(9.4)%
Total Xylem
Operating income$367 $486 (24.5)%
Operating margin7.5 %9.3 %(180)bp
Restructuring and realignment costs77